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    Typhoon Arises [ Genesis To Future ]

    Typhoon Arises [ Edefence ]

    Eurofighter's plane finally comes in
    by Michal Fiszer
    Sep. 15, 2005

    The Eurofighter Typhoon is finally reaching full operational service, with its Tranche 1 aircraft due to be delivered to customers by the end of this year. The Eurofighter program is one of the major European defense efforts and can be compared to the US F/A-22. Both aircraft have their roots in the Cold War, and both were initially developed with a focus on the air-to-air role. The Eurofighter Typhoon has been widely criticized in the press around the world. The program was cited for its long development cycle and high cost. But it must be remembered that state-of-the-art European technologies were integrated in the aircraft.

    The Typhoon has all the capabilities typical for modern, fourth-generation fighters. It has a powerful radar of impressive range, target-tracking, and



    Germany initially had placed greater emphasis on the air-to-air role, but as Luftwaffe Tornado units are reduced in strength, the Typhoon will be required to carry a greater share of the strike load.

    electronic-counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capabilities, as well as modern, beyond-visual-range (BVR) missiles. It will be equipped with an even more powerful, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar and longer-range BVR missiles in the form of Meteors. It also has tremendous maneuverability and dynamic flight characteristics in terms of acceleration, climb, and a wide flight envelope, which makes it a demanding enemy in a dogfight. The Typhoon will have a helmet-mounted display integrated in the subsequent tranches of aircraft, with agile air-to-air missiles slaved to the helmet cueing system. In an attack role, the aircraft will be able to perform standoff strikes against well-defended targets. It will be also able to engage ground targets with various types of weapons regardless of weather, day and night. Weapons load and combat radius are also high, enabling a considerable punch against a ground target, even deep inside enemy territory, suggesting potential usefulness as a suppression-of-enemy-air-defenses (SEAD) and anti-ship platform. The aircraft is also tailored to a network-centric warfare environment: it is equipped with a MIDS data-distribution system and three multifunction color displays. The pilot's workload has been reduced through the automation of many functions and by introduction of a direct-voice-input system together with hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls.

    But at the same time, the Typhoon has a relatively large radar cross-section (RCS) as compared to its peers. Some low-observability features were used but not to the extent employed on the F/A-22 Raptor or F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), or even the French Rafale. Detailed figures are classified, but an unofficial source says that the Typhoon has about a 1-square-meter RCS. Such a figure is quite a good achievement, since it is only about 0.13% of the RCS of the Su-27/30/35 and about 0.2% of the RCS of the MiG-29. However, it is significantly than the F/A-22's figure, which is reportedly in the region of 0.05 sq m. This is one point that brings much criticism to the aircraft. But it has to be considered that the balance between various features and capabilities is always a trade-off of one for the other.

    All of the countries that will employ the Typhoon claim it is a multirole aircraft. However, the balance in air-to-air and air-to-ground emphasis is different for each. The UK is placing the greatest emphasis on the attack role. Spain sees both roles as roughly equal. Germany initially had placed greater emphasis on the air-to-air role, but as Tornado units are reduced in strength, the Typhoon will be required to carry a greater share of the strike load. Italy will use the Typhoon mainly as an air-defense fighter, with some attack capabilities to supplement its planned future acquisition of the JSF. And finally, the sole firm export customer at the time of this article, Austria, assigns pure air-defense and air-policing missions to its Typhoons and does not want any air-to-ground capabilities.

    One common aspect for all "Eurofighter countries" is that potential enemies do not posses the most sophisticated military equipment, and "full stealthness" is not required to confront them. Comparatively simple and less costly radar-cross-section-reduction measures are deemed adequate, such as radar-absorbing materials (RAM) and management of electromagnetic, infrared, and noise signatures. There are other "non-stealth" engineering features to reduce detection: for example, the air intakes are shaped in such a way that the engines' compressor blades are not visible to enemy radars from the front. At the same time, to increase aircraft survivability, an advanced self-protection system was developed. It is also emphasized that, in the F/A-22 and F-35, a low RCS has been achieved at the cost of weapons-payload reduction, mostly due to the lack of external ordnance. One Typhoon representative said to the author: "What is the use of stealth if you don't have weapons?"

    The Typhoon is a symbol of state-of-the-art European technology, the product of the European approach to combat aircraft, and an example of European cooperation, with all the resulting advantages and disadvantages. Eurofighter's order log book is currently set at 638 aircraft, and this is a respectable figure, especially when compared with Europe's other two fourth-generation fighters, not to mention Russian industry. Presently, only the US F-35 JSF is to be procured in larger numbers, although no contract for series production has been signed yet. The orders for the F/A-22 are also considerably lower -- down to 180 at the time of this writing -- and its export potential is next to zero, for a number of reasons, not the least of which is its shock-inducing $350-million sticker price. The Eurofighter consortium hopes to sell many aircraft to export customers, although some recent high-profile efforts have failed, such as in Singapore, or are uncertain, such as in Greece. Nevertheless, the market potential of the Typhoon is still high

    Beginnings

    The Typhoon's roots can be traced as back as to 1970, when the UK Royal Air Force (RAF) issued Air Staff Target (AST) 396 for a short-take-off/vertical-landing (STOVL) aircraft to replace Jaguars and Harriers in the attack role. In 1972, when the initial experiences of US operations in the Vietnam War were analyzed, a new requirement was issued in the form of AST 403, in which secondary air-superiority capabilities were added. The UK realized that development costs of the new aircraft might be too high, so it turned to Germany and France for cooperation. Already at that time, differences between the potential partners were obvious. France also wanted a Jaguar replacement but did not want fighter capabilities so as to create a competitor for its own Mirages. Germany wanted more of a fighter than a strike aircraft, since the country was concerned about a possible Warsaw Pact mass air attack against its territory and also because the Luftwaffe had just fielded new ground-attack aircraft: the Tornado and the Alpha Jet. Meanwhile, the RAF dropped its STOVL requirement, because it decided that it could defend its airbases and, thus, did not need a front-line aircraft that traded performance for the ability to operate from secondary strips. Only in 1979 were the conflicting requirements reconciled so that the three countries could conduct a two-year European Combat Fighter (ECF) study. British Aerospace (now BAE Systems, Warton UK), MBB (later DASA and now EADS, Munich, Germany) and Avions Marcel Dassault (now Dassault Aviation, Paris, France) were involved in the study from the industrial side. At the same time, the companies developed their own projects in parallel, such as the British P.106 and later P.110 and the German TKF-90. Finally, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the UK decided to stop endless discussion, and her government allocated $143.5 million for an Experimental Aircraft Project (EAP) aimed at building a future-fighter-technology demonstrator. The program resulted in a prototype, which aerodynamically was very similar to the present Typhoon, except for the wing shape: the EAP had a double-swept delta, whereas the Typhoon would have a constant-swept delta.

    In the early 1980s, the program accelerated, because the first information about new advanced Soviet air-superiority fighters, the Su-27 and MiG-29, reached the West. A new program, the Future European Fighter Aircraft (F/EFA), was agreed to, and requirements were again discussed. At this stage, France wanted to build a smaller aircraft suitable also for carrier operations, which was not a requirement for the other countries. Moreover, France wanted to lead the program on the basis of its experience in the development of supersonic fighter aircraft. France finally left the F/EFA program in 1985 and built its own technology demonstrator, the Rafale A (see "Storm Warning"). But, in the meantime, Italy and Spain joined the international effort, although disagreements continued. Germany and Italy, in the face of the introduction of the Tornado IDS, pursued mainly an air-defense and air-superiority fighter with no air-to-ground capabilities. Britain, despite the fact it was also introducing Tornados into service, wanted a multirole aircraft, and Spain did, too. But the program continued and the partners finally managed to agree. The Eurofighter consortium was established in June 1986.



    Block 2 Typhoon aircraft are being delivered in 2004 and 2005 and will consist of a total of 72 aircraft. They are both single- and two-seaters, with the majority being the former (one of which is seen here).

    According to an unofficial statement by a Eurofighter representative, the withdrawal of the French was a relief for the others, since this eliminated many conflicting requirements. The share between the involved companies was 33% for BAe, 33% for MBB, 21% for Aeritalia (now Alenia, Torino, Italy), and 13% for CASA (now EADS-CASA, Getafe, Spain). The balance refers to development of the aircraft. The production share is different and will be discussed later.

    Final requirements for the EFA were issued by all four countries in November 1988. Later that same month, the four countries signed a full-scale development contract. Initially, nine prototypes were to be built, but the number was later reduced to seven. Construction of the prototypes started in late 1989, in the twilight of the Cold War, and in accordance with the requirements set at that time. The first prototype (DA1) was completed in May 1992, and the program seemed to be on track, although the Soviet Union was no more.

    Eurofighter Prototypes

    After extensive ground tests, simulations of the operation of the flight-control system, and system checks, the DA1 prototype built by DASA in Ottobrunn, Germany, flew on March 27, 1994. The DA2 second prototype built by BAe in Warton, UK, flew on April 6, 1994. The first two prototypes, both single-seaters, were powered by RB199 engines from Tornado aircraft and did not have radar or most of the avionics systems.

    The flight-test program was conducted very carefully, with many ground simulations and tests. Despite that, one aircraft was lost, the two-seat DA6 on November 21, 2002, when both engines flamed out. Overall, the tests went relatively smoothly, and the technical problems typical for any sophisticated design were gradually solved.

    Eurofighter Prototypes

    Number Military No. Assembled First Flight Remarks


    DA1 98+29 Ottobrunn March 27, 1994 Aerodynamic tests, single-seater

    DA2 ZH588 Warton April 6, 1994 Aerodynamic tests, single-seater

    DA3 MMX602 Torino June 4, 1995 Engine tests, stores-carrying tests, single-seater

    DA4 ZH590 Warton March 4, 1997 Avionics and radar tests, two-seater

    DA5 98+30 Ottobrunn Feb. 25, 1997 Radar and advanced avionics tests, flight-control tests, single-seater

    DA6 XCE-16-01 Getafe Aug. 31, 1996 Two-seater systems tests; climatic tests; two-seater; lost on Nov. 21, 2002

    DA7 MMX603 Torino Jan. 1, 1997 Weapons tests, single-seater



    Later prototypes DA4, DA5, and DA7 were also used for various weapons tests. The first AIM-9 Sidewinder test occurred Dec. 14, 1997, and the first launch of an unguided AIM-120 AMRAAM took place two days later. The first guided test of an AIM-120 AMRAAM against two targets simultaneously occurred on March 15, 2005, which cleared the aircraft for the AIM-120B and AIM-120C-5. Tests of the AIM-132 ASRAAM were completed on June 15, 2005.

    Although the tests did not present major problems, the political situation in the world did. The end of the Cold War caused major reconsideration of the whole Eurofighter program. In 1995, the countries involved cut back on the number of aircraft they required: Germany from 250 to 140 (later increased to 180, with the additional 40 to be procured after 2012), the UK from 250 to 232, Italy from 165 to 121, and Spain from 100 to 87. The share of production work for Eurofighter is set at 37% for the UK, 30% for Germany, 20% for Italy, and 13% for Spain.

    Attack and Identification System (AIS)

    All of the Typhoon's major sensors were integrated into a single Attack and Identification System (AIS). The AIS has been integrated with the use of the 1,000-Mbit/sec. STANAG 3910 optical data bus. A similar data bus has been used for navigation-avionics integration, while five 100-Mbit/sec. MilStd 1553 data buses were used to integrate other systems. The AIS mainly consists of the Captor radar, the Pirate infrared (IR) sensor, and the MIDS tactical data-exchange system, as well as associated processing systems. Two powerful computers based on Motorola 68020 processors are used in the AIS: the Avionics Computer (AC) and the Navigation Computer (NC). Both fully exchange information between one another (i.e., data from the navigation computer are also used for attack solutions, and vice versa).

    The $394.2-million contract for development of a production radar was awarded to the EuroRADAR consortium on March 16, 1989. It was initially known as the ECR-90, and the production unit was called the "C-Model," as is common practice in the British defense industry. In September 2000, the radar was named Captor. The first production Captor radar was delivered in March 2001. At the same time, the development example of Captor radar successfully flew in Germany on aircraft DA5.



    The DASS for Spain's Typhoons will include all of the systems, save the laser-warning receiver. However, inclusion of the laser warner is still under consideration.

    The Captor is a multimode radar, working in the I/J-band frequency range (8-12 GHz). It has a mechanically steered, grooved, flat (planar) metal antenna, with a diameter of 70 cm. Four electrical servos are used for quick antenna movements horizontally and vertically. The selection of a mechanical scan over a passive electronically scanned antenna was made, because it was assessed that such a solution was proven, and an advanced mechanically scanned antenna could offer better performance than an early electronically scanned antenna. It is now expected that, in the future, the radar will receive an active electronically scanning array (AESA).

    The 193-kg Captor is a modular design with 61 shop-replaceable units (SPUs) and six line-replaceable units (LRUs). The LRUs are the two receivers, two transmitters, the antenna, and the processor. The radar processor can perform three-billion operations per second and works with the use of ADA software compatible with MIL-STD 2167A. Three separate data-processing channels are used to enable the radar to perform various modes simultaneously. The radar can observe 60 degrees to the left and right horizontally (some sources claim 70 degrees), and the radar range is at least 160 km for targets with an RCS of 5 sq m. Large targets, such as transport aircraft, can be detected at distances of up to 300 km. The radar has several air-to-air modes in which high-, medium-, and low-pulse-repetition-frequency regimes are used. The available range of pulse-repetition-frequencies (PRFs) is from 1 to 20 KHz. Among the air-to-air modes are range-while-scan (RWS), track-while-scan (TWS), and velocity search (VS). All of the modes are used for BVR engagement with the use of AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles or, in the future, with the use of Meteors. In track-while-scan mode, 20 targets can be simultaneously tracked, and up to six (some sources says eight) can be simultaneously engaged. Range-while-scan is used for initial target detection, with the radar emitting at low PRF and high power. Velocity scan is used for prioritization of the targets detected, and the radar switches to medium PRF. Track-while-scan is the basic mode for air combat and engagement of enemy aircraft. Also, a single-target-track mode is available for engagement of a remote target at the edge of the missile's range. Additionally, the radar has a raid-assessment function that distinguishes individual targets within a group of targets, along with a non-cooperative recognition mode that evaluates target characteristics (counting engine-compressor blades, RCS measurement, etc.) to identify a type of aircraft. The Captor radar also has look-down/shoot-down capabilities. A unique radar feature is the ability to present returns on two multifunction displays in the cockpit, in the vertical and horizontal view, giving the pilot a three-dimensional situational picture.

    [b]The MIDS is also extensively used for BVR engagement. It enables the exchange of information between eight Typhoons in formation and with an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft, as well as with a ground-based station, such as the nearest air-operations center (AOC).[b] The aircraft typically attack in pairs, with the leading aircraft well forward and having its radar switched off and the trailing aircraft with the radar turned on. When targets are detected, the lead aircraft silently approaches with its radar in stand-by mode but not emitting. The attack is conducted silently, and, according to some sources, even the mid-course update can be accomplished based on information from the trailing aircraft. In the case of enemy attack, the leading aircraft can perform a break maneuver, and the second aircraft accelerates to engage.

    The Captor also has several dogfight modes. For the search and track of maneuvering targets, the vertical-search mode conducts scans in vertical surface sweeps rather than horizontally in descending or ascending bars. There is also a boresight mode for designating a target visible on the head-up display (HUD) and a slaved mode for designating an air target with the use of helmet-mounted cueing system.

    The Captor radar will also have some air-to-ground modes, which will be introduced in Tranche 2 aircraft (see below). A Doppler beam-sharpening (DBS) mode will provide a ground picture of one-meter resolution. A synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mode with 0.3-meter resolution is to be available, as well as ground-moving-target-indication/track (GMTI/T) and fixed-ground-target-track (FTT) modes. The range of the SAR is to be 80 km. A sea-surface-search-and-track mode is to have a range of 130 km. As for other modes, a ground-target rangefinding (GR) mode and a terrain-avoidance mode are to be introduced in Tranche 2. All the above modes are to support various weapons types that could be used against ground or naval targets.

    In 1992, the EuroFIRST consortium was selected to develop and deliver the forward-looking-infrared/infrared-search-and-track (FLIR/IRST) unit for Eurofighter. The consortium consisted of FIAR (Milano, Italy) as a leading company, Pilkington Optronics (Glasgow, UK, now Thales Optronics LTd), and Tecnobit (Madrid, Spain). The Passive Infrared Airborne Tracking Equipment (PIRATE) system is to be introduced in a basic version for Tranch 1/Block 5 aircraft and in a full version from Block 8. Full integration with other aircraft systems will be achieved on Tranche 2/Block 10 aircraft, except for German aircraft. The system will use a CCD-type FLIR camera with dual wavebands (3-5 and 8-11 microns). The processing speed of the PIRATE is to be up to 24-million pixels per second. The system will have a long range and a wide sector of search (detailed figures are classified) and will also be able to track multiple targets. Unofficial figures say the maximum range will be about 145 km in favorable conditions, with a 40-km identification range. Up to 200 targets will be able to be observed at a time, with tracking of several in a selected sector. The maximum observation sector, again according to unconfirmed information, is to be 75 degrees horizontally. Despite its name, the full version of PIRATE will also be able to track a designated ground target and present its picture on the helmet-mounted display. It will also be used as a navigation and landing aid. Air-to-air modes will include multiple-target track (MTT), single-target track (STT), and single-target identification (STI).

    Eurofighter Protection: The Defensive Aid Subsystem (DASS)

    As with the other complex systems, the history of the Typhoon's Defensive Aid Subsystem (DASS) is not an easy one. By 1991, only two partners had decided to develop a common DASS system and formed the EuroDASS consortium, consisting of GEC Marconi (60%; Basildon, UK, later BAE Systems and now Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd., a Joint Venture of BAE Systems and the Finmecanica Group) and Elettronica SpA. (40%, Rome, Italy). When Spain decided to go with the DASS, the consortium was joined by Indra Sistemas SA (Madrid, Spain) in 1995. Germany finally signed on, with EADS Defense Electronics (Ulm, Germany) entering EuroDASS in October 2001. The leading company in the EuroDASS consortium is Selex. The $276-million contract for the development of the DASS was awarded to EuroDASS on May 20, 1998. It was followed by a production contract for EuroDASS for Tranche 1, signed on June 23, 2001, worth of $538.4 million. EADS Defense Electronics fully entered the business on August 11, 2005, receiving a production contract for certain components of the DASS for 236 Tranche 2 aircraft, worth $316.6 million.

    The DASS is to be a highly modular system. Each DASS has five processors, developed and produced by Radstone Technology PLC (Towcester, UK). The DASS will consists of a radar-warning-receiver/electronic-support-measures (RWR/ESM) unit with an initial frequency range of 100 MHz to 18 GHz (unconfirmed by company or users), which is probably to be increased to 40 GHz for Tranche 2/Block 10. The RWR/ESM system works with the use of a wideband super-heterodyne system able to perform quick searches for electromagnetic emitters. The processor of the RWR/ESM system will be able to locate emitters through triangulation conducted in sequence. The accuracy of the RWR/ESM is to be below one degree in azimuth. The distance of the exact location of emitters (to the sides of the aircraft, where detection will be more accurate) is to be at least 100 km. The identification of emitters will enable threat prioritization, with information presented on a moving map or on any multifunction display as needed.

    Another important part of the DASS is a built-in electronic-countermeasures (ECM) system with the same spherical (360-degree) coverage around the aircraft as the RWR/ESM and (probably) the same frequency coverage. The ECM system is to work in several different modes and use directional beams for deception or noise jamming against threat emitters tracked by the RWR/ESM system. According to some sources, this part of the DASS on Italian aircraft was developed by Elettronica and is called Cross Eye. The ECM system will be introduced on Tranche 1/Block 2 aircraft in its basic form and from Tranch 1/Block 5 in its full version.

    The missile-approaching-warning system (MAWS) was developed by BAE Systems (Stanmore, UK) on the base of the Plessey (Marylebone, UK; acquired by GEC in the 1990s and later by BAE Systems) and dubbed the PVS 2000. [b]It is an active pulse-Doppler millimeter-wave radar unit that employsthree antennas (two in the wing roots and a third in the stern) to cover all around the aircraft. The system was to be later replaced by a passive unit to reduce aircraft emissions.[b] Information published in the press saying that this is to be the PIMAWS system developed by Bodenseewerk Gertetechnik GmbH (BGT; presently Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. KG, berlingen, Germany) seems to be incorrect, since neither the companies involved in EuroDASS nor users' representatives would confirm it. For all Tranche 2 aircraft, the same MAWS system has been ordered, although its elements are to be produced also by EADS Defense Electronics, Indra Sistemas, and Elettronica.

    The laser-warning receiver (LWS) is developed by Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd. Three sensors are to be mounted (on each side of the front fuselage and one at the bottom of the rear fuselage) on Block 5+ aircraft delivered to the UK RAF, and Spain is also considering it.

    The aircraft also has four chaff/flare launchers, all mounted under the wings. Two of them are SaabTech AB (Jrfala, Sweden) BOL dispensers, mounted in the missile rails on the outer under-wing stations. Each can carry 160 chaff rounds, providing a total of 360 on the aircraft. The two remaining dispensers are delivered by Elettronica Aster SpA (Barlassina, Italy). Each can carry 16 large 55mm flares, which gives a total capacity of 32 flares per aircraft. In most cases, these countermeasures are employed in preprogrammed sequences on command by the DASS system.

    All of the aircraft are to receive a towed radio-frequency (RF) decoy (with the possible exception of Germany's aircraft, according to a statement by a Luftwaffe spokesman). It will be a version of the BAE Systems (now Selex Sensors and Airborne Systems Ltd, Luton, UK) Ariel towed decoy. Two such decoys will be housed in the rear part of the wingtip pods. The decoy is towed on a 100-meter fiberglass cable and can be deployed at supersonic speeds.

    Cockpit Systems

    The two first prototypes of the Typhoon were flown with a classic instrumentation panel, but multifunction, cathode-ray-tube (CRT) displays -- initially two and later three -- were introduced subsequently. In September 1998, it was decided to select Smiths Industries (now Electronic Systems of Smiths Aerospace, Chehltenham, UK), to select modern active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCD), three per seat (i.e., six total in two-seaters). The displays themselves are being delivered by dpiX (Palo Alto, CA), a subsidiary of Xerox. They are known as Eagle 6 and are 6.25x6.25 inches (158.75x158.75 mm). The screen resolution is 1,024x1,024 pixels. The displays are supplemented by a HUD developed by BAE Systems (Rochester, UK). It is of wide-angle (35 by 25) and color-raster type, enabling the presentation of not only flight, navigation, and aiming information but also a picture from the PIRATE or the TV camera of a targeting pod on navigation mode.


    Eurofighter Cockpit BAE Systems

    The Typhoon will also be equipped with the BAE Systems (Rochester, UK) Striker helmet system. It is a binocular, visor-projected, night-vision-capable system, with two small CCD-TV cameras mounted on the helmet sides, enabling the pilot to use the helmet's visor as night-vision goggles (NVGs). The pilot can eject from the aircraft with the helmet on his head at speeds of over 600 knots. The helmet visor is to have full HUD symbology, and in late Tranche 3 later blocks (Block 25+), it will probably be possible to eliminate the HUD entirely, with all functions taken over by the helmet system.



    The aircraft typically attack in pairs, with the leading aircraft well forward and having its radar switched off and the trailing aircraft with the radar turned on. When targets are detected, the lead aircraft silently approaches it with its radar in stand-by mode but not emitting. In the case of enemy attack, the leading aircraft can perform a break maneuver, and the second aircraft accelerates to engage.

    Among the other features worth mentioning in the Eurofighter cockpit is the Direct Voice Input system, developed by Smiths Aerospace (Chehltenham, UK). The system will be able to recognize more than 200 words and phrases to support the functions of buttons and switches (altogether 24) mounted on the stick and throttles

    Tranche 1

    Under the umbrella contract signed in January 1998 for to production of 620 aircraft, plus an option for a further 90, the aircraft production has been divided into three large tranches. The fixed-price contract for each tranche is being negotiated separately and is covered by separate comprehensive contract for delivery of the aircraft within the tranche. The production contract for Tranche 1 aircraft was signed on Sept. 18, 1998, for the delivery of 148 aircraft and 363 engines. The contract was awarded by the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA) with Eurofighter Gmbh (Hallbergmoos, Germany) and Eurojet GmbH (Hallbergmoos, Germany).

    Before production started, five so-called "instrumental production aircraft" were produced, and they were used for various operational tests. Those aircraft were included in the Tranche 1 production aircraft. They are officially owned by NETMA but are operated by industry for test and system-enhancement purposes. They will probably never be used by air forces.

    First Flights of Instrumental Production Aircraft

    Serial Military No Date Remarks


    IPA1 ZJ699 15.04.02 Envelope expansion, Carefree handling, UK RAF two-seater

    IPA2 MMX614 05.04.02 Communication, Navigation, Italian Air Force single-seater

    IPA3 98+03 08.04.02 Handling qualities, Radar development, German Air Force two-seater

    IPA4 C.16-20 26.02.04 Environmental testing, Communication/MIDS, Spanish Air Force single-seater

    IPA5 ZJ700 06.06.04 Avionics, Carefree handling, UK RAF single-seater


    The series production of Eurofighter started in 1998. Elements of the aircraft are manufactured by the four partners separately and are assembled in four countries on four separate production lines. In Germany, EADS's factory in Manching was set up for final assembly, although prototypes were assembled in Ottobrunn. In the remaining countries, the production lines are the same as for prototypes (Warton, UK; Cassele, near Torrino, Italy; and Getafe, near Madrid, Spain).

    Certain elements and capabilities are being introduced on the aircraft gradually, to spread out the costs over more years, making the whole program more affordable. The production was, thus, divided into batches and, within the batches, into blocks. Batch 1 covers Block 1; Batch 2 covers Blocks 2, 2B and 5; Batch 3 covers Blocks 8 and 10; and Batch 4 covers Block 15. Batches 1 and 2 forms Tranche 1, while Batches 4 and 5 are Tranche 2. (However, since major changes occur within the blocks, the author decided to refer to blocks for aircraft's system descriptions.)

    Block 1 covers 30 aircraft, all two-seaters, used for initial crew training and having only basic air-to-air capabilities. The aircraft have the Captor radar in its initial form but do not have the DASS subsystem. They have PSP1 standard avionics software and have only basic armament abilities, with AIM-9L and AIM-132A (with some limitations), as well as a BK27 gun. All of the Block 1 aircraft were delivered in 2003 (except for one delivered to Germany in 2004). Total Block 1 production (all two-seaters) included nine for Germany, 11 for the UK, six for Italy, and four for Spain.

    Block 2 aircraft are being delivered in 2004 and 2005 and will consist of 72 aircraft. They are both single- and two-seaters, with the majority being the former. They have PSP2 standard avionics software, which enables the use of the gun against air targets and the full use of air-to-air missiles: AIM-9L Sidewinder and AIM-132A ASRAAM (the latter of which is used by the RAF). Discussing the armament options, all of the aircraft within each block will have the same capabilities, regardless of country. The fact that a certain user does not posses and does not use a certain type of weapon does not mean that Typhoons of that user cannot carry it (e.g., German Typhoons will be also capable of employing the ASRAAM, though the Luftwaffe does not operate it).

    They have also Direct Voice Input and a MIDS datalink system integrated into the avionics system. The aircraft of Block 2 have also a basic version of the DASS, with RWR/ESM and chaff/flare dispensers fully integrated, along with basic ECM capabilities. Block 2B introduces PSP3 avionics software but is basically the same as Block 2. Earlier Block 2 aircraft are to be retrofitted with the same software, thus becoming Block 2B.

    It is the intention of the users to bring all of the earlier-produced aircraft to the same standard, as the new blocks appear. It is a relatively easy task, too, as most of the changes lie in the software area, and since the very early Tranche 2 aircraft (Block 8), all of the planned hardware is to be present on the aircraft.

    Block 5, the final block of the Tranche 1 (40 aircraft to be produced), is to attain full air-to-air capabilities and some austere air-to-ground capabilities (mainly for the RAF). It is to be integrated with an analog version of the Iris-T and with the AIM-120B AMRAAM. The gun (except for RAF aircraft, on which the gun is to be non-operational as a money-saving measure) is to be integrated with the system to perform ground strafing as well with the use of the AIS (which presents automatically calculated impact points on the HUD). The aircraft, except for German ones, are to receive the PIRATE sensor and the full version of the DASS. The latter will differ slightly in various countries. Only the RAF is going to use the laser-warning receiver. The towed decoy is to be used by all countries except for Germany, but otherwise, the remaining countries are going to receive the same DASS system. The decoy will probably be available already on Block 2B aircraft, while the laser-warning system will be part of Block 5. Also, on all of the aircraft, the MAWS is to be available starting with Block 5 aircraft. The other features of Block 5 aircraft will include full sensor fusion in the avionics suite, full Direct Voice Input, and full air-to-surface carefree handling (Phase 5 flight-control-system software).

    All of the Block 5 aircraft are to carry GBU-10 and GBU-16 Paveway II guided bombs. Up to three GBU-10s (normally two) are to be carried or up to five (normally four) of the GBU-16 are to be carried. Only the RAF wants to get Enhanced Paveway II as part of Block 5, but this capability is still being negotiated between the parties. The RAF also wants the targeting-pod integration in Block 5. The pods selected are the Rafael (Haifa, Israel) Litening 3 for the RAF or Litening 2 for the Luftwaffe. The remaining countries have not yet selected a pod yet but will likely also opt for the Litening 3. Germany selected Litening 2 because it is already used by the Luftwaffe and produced by Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH (Oberkochen, Germany). Block 5 systems are to be ready by the end of 2006, and the certification process is to be conducted in early 2007. The aircraft delivered starting in 2007 will be built in accordance to the Block 5 standard.

    Tranche 2

    The contract for Tranche 2 Typhoon aircraft was signed on Dec. 17, 2004, again between NETMA and Eurofighter GmbH. The contract was worth approximately $25 billion and covered delivery of 236 fighters for four nations. On top of Tranche 2, 18 fighters for Austria are also to be produced within Block 8 under a separate contract. The first 96 aircraft of Tranche 2 are to be built as Block 8 aircraft. Block 8 is to include all of the hardware for the Block 10, but the software will not initially support the use of all of the systems to their full levels performance. Once the software of Block 10 becomes available, all of the Block 8 aircraft will be brought up to the Block 10 standard.

    The Block 10 aircraft will have enhanced air-to-air capabilities with the integration of the AIM-120C-5 and the digital version of the Iris-T. The aircraft will also carry up to three GBU-24/B Paveway III (with Mk 84 core), GBU-24B/B (with BLU-109A/B core), or GBU-24E/B Enhanced Paveway III guided bombs. Conventional bombs of the "80" family, as well as cluster bombs are to be integrated as well, with the system automatically calculating the impact point and presenting it on the HUD. The aircraft will also receive an advanced digital map generator, new GPS embedded with its inertial-navigation system (INS), and an enhanced DASS. This last enhancement will probably increase the frequency range to 40 GHz, at least for the RWR/ESM portion. Block 10 Typhoons were to be integrated with ALARM anti-radar missiles, but only for the RAF. Anti-radar capabilities are the subject of ongoing negotiations and have not yet been included in Tranche 2 requirements (or contract), but this can change. Block 10 aircraft will be available starting in 2010.

    Roughly 40% of the last Tranche 2 aircraft are to be produced in accordance with the Block 15 standard, perhaps starting in 2010. It is assumed that Meteor missiles will be integrated with the Typhoon starting with Block 15. Up to eight missiles are to be carried (identical number as the AIM-120), including four on the edges of the fuselage and four on under-wing stations. The air-to-ground weapons introduced starting with Block 15 are to include KEPD 350 Taurus and Storm Shadow missiles, with two of each type to be carried on the middle stations under each wing in place of 1,000-liter drop tanks. When two of such missiles are carried, the aircraft can carry only a single underfuselage tank for 1,000 liters of fuel. At that time, the Conformal Fuel Tanks (CFTs) are to become available, each carrying 1,500 liters of additional fuel, thereby mitigating the aforementioned deficiency. There is some mystery, however, regarding the number of Taurus and Storm Shadow missiles to be acquired. According to plans, four of these weapons are to be carried, but some sources suggest that the number was reduced to two, only on the middle station under the wings. Taurus was selected by Germany and Spain, while Storm Shadow was selected by the UK and Italy for their Typhoons. Among other air-to-ground weapon is the Brimstone missile, selected only by the RAF. Up to 15 Brimstones are to be carried on five triple launchers, one under the fuselage and four under the wings.

    Block 15 for all the countries is to be also integrated with Paveway IV bombs and with GPS-guided GBU-31/32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAMs). The latter will be carried in the same number as the Mk.80 family of bombs. The unguided bombs can be carried in the following number: five of the 907-kg bombs, seven of the 454-kg type, or 12 of 225-kg variety (the latter on triple racks under the wings, the former - including one on the fuselage centerline rack). However, the negotiations on the JDAM are still ongoing. For example, Germany, as of now, has no requirement for GPS-guided bombs, and the German air-to-ground weapons are to be Paveway II and Enhanced Paveway II (EGBU-16) bombs and Taurus missiles, along with unguided bombs.

    The delivery of the Tranche 2 and Block 15 aircraft is to be completed by the end of 2015.

    Tranche 3

    The Tranche 3 aircraft have not yet been defined, since the contract for them is expected in next few years. The plans are that Tranche 3 will cover Block 20 and Block 25 aircraft, produced from 2013 to 2015. Tranche 3 most likely will introduce Captor-E radar with an AESA type of antenna, increasing range, and the number of possible target tracks. On the Block 25, it will be probably a NOTAR [not only a radar], highly integrated with the aircraft's avionics and performing such functions as supporting the ESM and ECM systems.

    Special effort is to be directed toward reducing the RCS of the Typhoon. One option being considered, aside from the introduction of new-generation RAM, is the elimination of the vertical tail and replacing its functions with thrust vectoring. In addition, IR signature and electromagnetic emissions are to be reduced considerably.

    Block 20 aircraft are also to introduce enhanced naval attack functions, including the carrying of anti-ship missiles of an as-yet-unspecified type. Block 25 is so remote, though that all the features of this version discussed in the press can be treated as pure speculation.

    Export

    In early 2000, the Eurofighter consortium hoped to sell Typhoons to many countries around the world. For many potential customers, however, the aircraft was too expensive, since they were looking for less capable, lighter, and cheaper fighters (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Denmark, for example). The Eurofighter Typhoon lost to the Boeing (St. Louis, MO) F-15K in South Korea and the Boeing F-15T in Singapore, most probably due to political considerations, but export prospects for the aircraft still exist, though limited to more wealthy countries.

    Till now, only Austria selected the Typhoon in July 2003. Greece also selected the Typhoon but postponed the contract signature. The recent contract for additional 30 F-16C/D Block 52+ for the Hellenic Air Force, however, sparked a discussion as to whether Greece would cancel its planned Typhoon procurement altogether. Officially, no such decision has been made, and Greece is to purchase 60 Typhoons with option for 30 more. Among the other potential customers are Saudi Arabia (requirements for 150 aircraft) and Australia (requirements for 70 aircraft). There is also still an uncertain situation in Norway. The Scandinavian country participates in the JSF program but did not close the door to the Typhoon, and an official decision has yet to be made.

    Users

    The first operational unit to receive Typhoons in Germany was Jagdgeschwader 73 "Steinhoff" (JG 73) at Laage air base, near Rostock, in the northern Germany. The first aircraft was accepted on April 30, 2004. Both of the unit's squadrons, 731 and 732, previously operating F-4F Phantom II and MiG-29 fighters, are to complete equipping with the Typhoon in 2006. The unit's role is air defense, air policing, and training of German Typhoon personnel.

    The next German unit to be re-equipped with Eurofighter is JG 74 "Moelders" from Neuburg, near Munich, in the southern Germany. Again, two of the unit's squadrons, 741 and 742, are to convert to the Typhoon from F-4F Phantom II aircraft in 2006-2008. The unit's role will also be air defense and air policing. The final Luftwaffe air-defense unit to be converted to the Typhoon is JG 71 "Richthofen," based in Wittmund. The unit will receive its Typhoons in the 2011-2012 timeframe.

    The first Tornado unit to be converted to Typhoons will be JGB 31 "Boelcke," based in Nrvenich in northern Germany. The unit, which is to convert in the 2008-2010 timeframe, is to have multirole tasks, including both supporting dedicated air-defense units and ground attack. It will be one of two Luftwaffe ground-attack units. The second will be JBG 33 from Bchel, which is to receive Eurofighters in the 2013-2014 timeframe. The remaining two Tornado ground-attack wings, JBG 34 and JBG 38, have already been disbanded.

    With the disbandment of MFG 2 (Marinefliegergeschwader 2) a Germany Navy fighter-bomber unit, from Eggebeck by the end of this year, all naval-support tasks will be undertaken by reconnaissance wing AKG 51 (Aufklarunggeschwader 51) "Immelmann" from Jagel, which will continue to use Tornados for naval operations and reconnaissance even after the Typhoon deliveries are completed. The other Tornado unit that will continue to operate this type beyond the end of Typhoon deliveries is JGB 32 from Lechfeld, operating Tornado ECR and specializing in the SEAD role. Tornado aircraft are to be modernized for both roles, and 85 of the aircraft are to serve beyond 2015. Therefore, the Luftwaffe does not have any requirements for SEAD and naval support for the Typhoon, as these roles will be filled by modernized Tornados, armed with HARM anti-radar missiles and Kormoran anti-ship missiles.

    The RAF, meanwhile, will be the biggest Typhoon user, but plans for conversion are still evolving. The aircraft actually received the Typhoon moniker in RAF service, with Typhoon T1 being the two-seat version and Typhoon F2 the single-seater. Block 5 aircraft are to be called T1A and F2A, respectively. The first operational unit to receive the Typhoon was No. 29(R) Squadron, reformed in Warton in 2003. One year later, the unit moved to Conningsby, where it joined the second converted unit, No. 17(R) Squadron, which has used the Typhoon since 2004. No. 29 Squadron is the Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) for Typhoon aircraft, while No. 17 Squadron is the Operational Evaluation Unit (OEU). Both units carry reserve squadron-number plates and were re-established from previously deactivated units flying Tornado F3 and GR1, respectively.

    The RAF next squadron to re-equip is to be No. 3(F) Squadron in Cottesmore (presently flying Harrier GR7s), which is to be disbanded by the end of this year and re-established in the summer of 2006 in Conningsby. It will be the first operational RAF squadron with the Typhoon, initially charged with the air-defense role.

    Current RAF plans also call for re-equipping the Tornado F3 units from two bases: Leeming (No. XI and No. XXV Squadrons) and Leuchars (No. 43, No. 56[R], and 111 Squadrons). No. XI Squadron is to be converted first, in 2007.

    The first RAF squadron to receive Tranche 2 aircraft is to be No. 6 Squadron, which will be reformed in 2007 in Leuchars. No. 6 Squadron, along with No. 41(F) Squadron, are currently Jaguar units based in Coltishall. Both units are to be disbanded in 2006 (No. 16 and No. 54(R) Squadrons were already been disbanded in March 2005), and Coltishall air base is to be closed in 2007.

    The next RAF units to be converted are three squadrons presently flying Tornado F3 aircraft: No. XXV from Leeming and No. 43 and No. 111 from Leuchars. Those squadrons are to be converted from 2009 onwards, thus creating a complement of six operational squadrons that will all eventually be multirole squadrons. The re-arming means a major reorganization of the RAF's strike force, since many squadrons will change roles and bases (usually being disbanded and then reformed as totally new units) and some others deactivated, with their bases closed. The RAF's plans beyond 2009 are still under evaluation. They are changing, and it is difficult to make any firm statements as to which units will next receive Typhoons.

    Italy's first unit to convert to the Typhoon was IX Gruppo (squadron) of 4 Stormo "Amedeo d'Aosta" (wing), based in Grossetto. The unit serves as an experimental and training unit and has used Eurofighters since 2004. In 2005, the second squadron of 4 Stormo XX Gruppo, also based in Grossetto was converted to the Typhoon. XX Gruppo has the air-defense role and previously flew F-104S Starfighters. The next Italian squadron to be equipped with the Typhoon will be 12 Gruppo of the Stormo "Helmut Riccardo Seidl" in Gioia Del Colle, perhaps followed by 156 Gruppo of the same wing and base. Next to be re-equipped will be 37 Stormo "Cesare Toschi" in Trapani. Its 18 Gruppo is currently flying F-16A/B air-defense fighters, and these will be replaced by Typhoons by 2015. Italian Typhoon units are to be multirole but, unlike the RAF's, will place a strong emphasis on air-defense tasks.

    The first Spanish squadron to received the Typhoon was 113 Escuadron of Ala 11 wing, based in Moron. The unit, previously flying F/A-18A+ aircraft, is to train crews for the Spanish Typhoons. The first combat unit will be the 111 Escuadron from the same wing, which will be converted in 2007, followed by 112 Escuadron in 2009. By 2015, another wing with two squadrons is to be converted: Ala 14 wing with 141 and 142 Escuadrones. Ala 14 is based in Albacete and is currently flying on Mirage F1CE. All Spanish Typhoon squadrons will be multirole, as are the F/A-18A/B aircraft (designated EF-18 in Spanish service), which will continue to be used by Ala 12 and 15 wings in Torrejon and Zaragossa, respectively. However, some specific roles (e.g., SEAD and anti-ship) will remain the sole responsibility of EF-18 aircraft.

    Finally, Austria will receive its first four Eurofighters in 2007. In 2008, 12 more are to be handed over, with the final two following in 2009. The whole contract is worth $2.4 billion, including logistics support and training of personnel. All of Austria's Typhoons will be used solely for air defense. Two squadrons will operate Eurofighters: the 1. Staffel in Zeltweg and the 2. in Graz. Austria will use only Sidewinders and AMRAAMs on its Typhoons, with no plans to purchase air-to-ground weapons for the aircraft.

    Know Thine Enemy

    A critical question needed to be answered before detailed requirements for the Typhoon were set: Who is the enemy? At the time when the Typhoon was first conceived, the answer to that question was obvious: the military forces of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. Work on the Eurofighter was accelerated by the introduction of the Su-27 and MiG-29 in the early 1980s. They were highly maneuverable fighters with good BVR capabilities and were armed with advanced R-27R/RE medium-range missiles. Basic NATO fighters of European countries would have problems dealing with them, especially the F-4 Phantoms operated at that time by the UK, Germany, and Spain, as well as the F-104S Starfighters operated by Italy. And who is the enemy now? There are different points of view.



    The Eurofighter consortium had hoped to sell the Typhoon to many countries around the world, but export sales are hardly taking off. To date, only Austria has selected the Typhoon, and Greece's planned procurement of the aircraft could be cancelled following the purchase of an additional 30 F-16s for the Hellenic Air Force.

    For the UK, enemies are likely to be unstable countries located outside of Europe, such as rogue countries that sponsor international terrorism and failed states that provide terrorist bases. A military operation against such countries, ranging from full-scale conflict to low-intensity stabilization operations, would likely see the participation of UK forces. However, it has been assumed that British forces would not conduct such operation alone, but rather as a part of an international coalition. Thus, not all capabilities are necessary, since they would be provided by other allied countries, primarily the US. In addition, from the RAF's point of view, most of those potential enemies do not possess state-of-the art air forces, so stealth capabilities are not necessary. On the other hand, though good BVR capabilities and significant dogfight capabilities are appreciated, as well as large loads of precision weapons and adequate range to conduct air-to-ground missions from available air bases, not always located close to the potential targets or even the battlefield (when CAS/BAI is considered). And there is also one more factor: the RAF will also be getting F-35 JSF stealth aircraft. Therefore, it will have stealth fighters for the initial phase of the fight for air superiority in full-scale conflicts, while Typhoons would assess the effects of initial Tomahawk and stealth-fighter strikes, deliver a considerable load of ordnance on desired targets, and loiter over battlefield for long time, ready to provide air cover or CAS at the same time, as the situation dictates.

    For Germany, meanwhile, the main focus is still homeland defense, and the air-defense fighter-interceptor is the main role of its Typhoons. Potential enemies can be countries beyond the eastern NATO frontier, as those countries are not fully democratic, are unstable, and still posses tremendous military potential (see "Loose Cannons in Eastern Europe, Part I: Ukraine" and "Loose Cannons in Eastern Europe, Part II: Belarus and Moldova"). Should the situation in those countries take a turn in the wrong direction, Germany must maintain basic homeland-defense capabilities. Although the development of such situation seems to be unlikely in the nearest future, defense capabilities in the major areas, like multirole fighters, are not built overnight. Multirole fighters must stay in service for decades, and the political situation cannot be forecast for such a long time. Providing full security to the homeland is the highest-priority task for armed forces, and even when no significant threat currently exists, they must be prepared for the uncertain future. Of course, now Germany also sees the Typhoon as also having a role in overseas operations, but all of the air-to-ground capabilities are to be employed as they are in coalition contingency operations should such a situation arise.

    Italy and Spain, as Mediterranean countries, are closer to the Arab nations of North Africa, which might potentially present a threat in various forms. For both Italy and Spain, homeland defense is of equal importance as overseas contingency operations, and homeland defense consists primarily of providing adequate air defense of their territories. Thus, in both countries, the Typhoon is to be an air-defense fighter, with some attack capabilities included. The main difference is that Italy is going to purchase F-35 JSFs to replace its AMX attack aircraft, while Spain will continue to operate modernized EF-18s, and these will be tasked primarily with air-to-ground, anti-ship, and basic SEAD missions. Italy's Typhoons will replace mainly F-104S and F-16A/B aircraft and will take over their tasks in the country's air-defense system. Spanish Eurofighter missions will be similar to those assigned to the country's EF-18s, so the both air-to-air and air-to-ground, missions (as well as anti-ship and SEAD) are future possibilities.

    Total Production

    Tranche Single-Seater Two-Seater Total


    1 96 52 148

    2 211 25 236

    3 213 23 236

    Total 520 100 620


    Production by Nation

    Nation Single-seater Two-Seater Total


    UK 195 37 232

    Germany 147 33 180

    Italy 106 15 121

    Spain 71 15 87

    Austria 14 4 18


    UK

    Tranche Single-Seater Two-Seater Total


    1 37 18 55

    2 83 6 89

    3 75 13 88

    Total 195 37 232


    Germany

    Tranche Single-Seater Two-Seater Total


    1 28 16 44

    2 58 10 68

    3 61 7 68

    Total 147 33 180


    Italy

    Tranche Single-Seater Two-Seater Total


    1 19 10 29

    2 43 3 46

    3 44 2 46

    Total 106 15 121


    Spain

    Tranche Single-Seater Two-Seater Total


    1 12 8 20

    2 27 6 33

    3 33 1 34

    Total 72 15 87


    First flights of production aircraft

    Serial Military No. Date Remarks



    GT001 30+01 13.02.03 German Air Force two-seater

    IT001 CSX55092 14.02.03 Italian Air Force two-seater

    BT001 ZJ800 14.02.03 UK Royal Air Force two-seater

    ST001 CE.16-01 17.02.03 Spanish Air Force two-seater

    GS002 30+07 22.10.04 German Air Force single-seater (flown earlier than GS001/30+06)

    IS001 MMX7235 09.07.04 Italian Air Force single-seater

    BS001 ZJ910 11.05.04 UK Royal Air Force single-seater

    SS001 C.16-21 Spanish Air Force single-seater


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    Last edited by Austin; 8th December 2005, 07:23.
    "A map does you no good if you don't know where you are"
  • F-18 Hamburger
    Senior Member

    #2
    that's no Typhoon, that's just the ******* child of 4 nations that got stuck in the womb for so long.

    now here's a Typhoon!

    Comment

    • Ja Worsley
      The last sane man a live!

      #3
      Correct me if I am wrong guys, but isn't Austria only getting Single seaters? I read only last week that their deal is for 18 single seaters covering two squadrons (8 and 10). This has been a contriversial decission but Austris has decided to send their pilots to the EFFTS in Germany instead of a home grown pilot training solution.
      It's a good thing you are short, that way you don't have to live up to a high IQ!

      Comment

      • duotiga
        Rank 5 Registered User

        #4
        You are right...they only buy single seaters for Austria....

        Not that i does not like typhoon.....is just that the development is taking taking too long......
        sigpic
        Exia, Eliminate Target!!!

        Comment

        • Stealth Spy
          Rank 6 Registered User

          #5
          Austin, looking at the amount of Eurofighter lobbying you are doing lately in several forums ... and advocating India buy 126 of it ( despite it being siverely inferior to the other MRCA contenders in various aspects ...like radar, TVC, A2G role...etc ...etc )... i must ask you if you get paid for this by EADS's PR department ??
          Last edited by Stealth Spy; 8th December 2005, 12:13.

          Comment

          • Rob L
            Rank 5 Registered User

            #6
            And why would the Typhoon Tranche 2 be inferior to say the Mirage 2000 in A2G, Radar or other things?

            Comment

            • sealordlawrence
              Senior Member

              #7
              Stealth, as an A2A fighter the Typhoon is the best plane that has been offered to India, in the A2G role it has alot of potential, unfortunately it has not been exploited yet.

              Comment

              • Rob L
                Rank 5 Registered User

                #8
                I agree with Sealordlawrence, especially if you consider that Tranche 2 aircraft have a very good A2G capability.

                Comment

                • Stealth Spy
                  Rank 6 Registered User

                  #9
                  Originally posted by Rob L
                  And why would the Typhoon Tranche 2 be inferior to say the Mirage 2000 in A2G, Radar or other things?
                  Try saying the same thing about the 2052 enabled Mig-35 or the block 2 Super Hornet.or the AN/APG-80 block 70 F-16

                  > Captor is Mechanically Scanned and is generations behind what the rest of the competing airplanes in the MRCA have to offer
                  > The TVC project for the EJ200 appears suspended. Even if the project is still on, it may not enter service (after all the testing, etc) in another 7 years. The Mig-35, Su-30 MKI feature 3D and 2D TVC alredy.
                  > The Mig-35 will have (most likely) an avionics mix of the best of Russian, French, Isreali & Indian avionics...surely this is as good as the EF's .... the block 60's avionics and sensor suite is mind blowing as well.
                  > With 3D TVC surely the Mig-35 is more manuverable than the EF
                  > New Russian RAM's can significantly bring down the RCS of the Mig-35 to the EF's standard.

                  Further, i doubt if the EF is better in the A2A role as well ... without AESA radar i dunno how it can be claimed that its better than the sh or super manuverable 2052 Mig-35 .. .

                  Sources claim that the Meteor is on offer to India as well....so is the Armament Air-Sol-Modulaire (AASM) range of precision-guided weapons ... and this is available to India to use on Russian fighters.

                  I dunno why the EF marketers stress its multirole (when the Tranche 2 is still in the stage it is in)...and pray anyone tells me of this "5th gen project" that is spoken of ..

                  Learning about India's multi-role combat aircraft requirement, the EADS (European Aeronautics and Defence Systems) is pitching for its multi-role Eurofighter Typhoon.

                  The EADS team which is now visiting India is hopeful that the country can take advantage of the latest technology at a cheaper price, and the Typhoon can be entirely produced here.

                  EADS executives say that Typhoon is truly multi-role, suitable for air defense, bombing and air superiority missions, and the other advantage is that India would be involved, should it choose, right from R&D stage.

                  EADS participated in the advanced light helicopter project in the late-Eighties, which is today a success story, and in briefings to the government, it has offered to take India on board its fifth generation fighter aircraft project, which is far well advanced than the Russian project, and the first Typhoons could be delivered by 2006.
                  Full article >>


                  Other than supercrise, i dont see the Eurofighter so very advanced in any way ( with relation to the other contenders)
                  Last edited by Stealth Spy; 8th December 2005, 13:07.

                  Comment

                  • Ja Worsley
                    The last sane man a live!

                    #10
                    Stealth Spy: mate I have to keep reminding Austin in IM chats about the disadvantages of the Typhoon as well so don't worry, you are not the only one banging his head, truth is, out of all the contenders, the Typhoon is just one of them- a contender! They all have their good points and their bad points. To be honest with you, I would like to see the Raf gain at least one export sale, wether it be to India or to Argentina.
                    It's a good thing you are short, that way you don't have to live up to a high IQ!

                    Comment

                    • Stealth Spy
                      Rank 6 Registered User

                      #11
                      Originally posted by Ja Worsley
                      To be honest with you, I would like to see the Raf gain at least one export sale, wether it be to India or to Argentina.
                      But this is the German EADS unit which is offering the EF .. the British alredy tried ( with high level lobbying )to but did not achieve much sucess ....


                      NEW DELHI, NOV 24: In a new twist to the Indian quest for the 126 medium range combat aircraft (MRCA), a fifth bidder has appeared on the scene nearly a year after the request for information were invited.
                      Officials attribute the sudden emergence of EADS offering its Eurofighter Typhoon for the prestigious Indian order as a strong bid to keep the American Lockheed Martin and Boeing out of contention.


                      The four contenders so far were: two American companies including Lockheed Martin, Boeing, French company Dassault and Russian MiG.

                      However, talking to FE, Mahmut Turker, sales director, military aircraft EADS Defence and Security, said, “We are in New Delhi on a fact-finding mission and have had talks with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as well other top government officials.”

                      The EADS team will be visiting Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and explore opportunities for possible expansion of existing ventures.

                      ..the German EADS team is understood to be making the point that the Eurofighter Typhoon will have a “generational difference” with the Mirage.

                      Unwilling to reveal their strategy, Mr Turker explained that, “EADS is aware of India’s requirement. The company is ready to work with specifications and issues relating to outsourcing and weapon systems to be on board will be addressed during various discussions.

                      http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_f...tent_id=109591

                      Since the british failed, the Germans are now trying their luck

                      here's a news article that is 10 months old ...
                      The British government is “pushing hard” for India to purchase the Eurofighter for the Indian Air Force (IAF), Deccan Herald quoted a visiting Indian MP as saying.

                      Congress MP Jyotiraditya Scindia, who is co-chair of a delegation of cross-party MPs and businessmen from the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) currently visiting London, told Deccan Herald that the issue of selling the Eurofighter, developed jointly by the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain, was raised by British Defence Procurement Minister Lord Bach last Monday.

                      Other MPs who were received by Lord Bach included Shiv Sena’s Suresh Prabhu, BJP’s Ananth Kumar, Anand Sharma and Ajay Maken of Congress, Samajwadi’s Akilesh Yadav and Rajya Sabha MP Lalit Puri.

                      India recently signed a $1 billion deal to purchase 66 Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) aircraft from the UK and the idea of future defence deals involving other fighter aircraft has now been raised by British officials and defence exporters in London.

                      “As you know the AJT deal has been finalised and that’s close to a billion dollar deal for 66 jets, but there’s also the issue of upgrading six squadrons of MiG 21s and the UK government is pushing hard for the Eurofighter,” Scindia told Deccan Herald in an exclusive interview. “From an Indian standpoint what is interesting is the offset that should be given. That was also the subject of discussion with Lord Bach, who is the minister for defence procurement.”

                      Scindia, who believes bilateral trade could be worth $12 billion by next year, stressed that defence technology was just one of many areas of future collaboration that was discussed by the delegation with their British hosts. “India and the UK have shared a very long history and a long relationship over decades and over the last six to seven years we have seen the blooming of economic ties between the two countries,” Deccan Herald quoted Scindia as saying.

                      “In terms of trade that is now worth over $10 billion, hopefully reaching about $12 billion next year; also India happens to be the second most important investor in the UK and similarly the UK also happens to be the third most important investor in India.
                      and here's what the then air chief marshal Krishnaswamy had to say on the Typhoon >> Talking of some options, Krishnswamy termed the Mirage 2000-V as a "good plane", the MiG-29 MRCA as "very promising". He said there was no emphasis on a twin-engine aircraft. On the Eurofighter (Typhoon), the IAF Chief said his understanding was that "it is yet not a multi-role aircraft" and is "currently available only in its air defence variant"..


                      European consortium pushes Typhoon for IAF contract
                      Wednesday November 30 2005 00:00 IST

                      NEW DELHI: Just days before the government opens bid for one of its largest arms purchase, of 126 multirole fighter aircraft, European defence consortium EADS made a quick last ditch effort on November 25 to push the Eurofighter Typhoon fighter in...

                      However, considering that the IAF is looking for a medium-range multirole fighter, it was decided that the longer range and considerably more expensive Typhoon would be unsuitable for its immediate needs.

                      South Block sources indicated that the unsolicited offer by Washington for Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet might have encouraged the European firm to make a final attempt to formally propose Typhoon for the competition.

                      The Typhoon was rejected last year on the same grounds as the French Rfale, which was offered alongside Mirage-2000-5.
                      http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems...tories&Topic=0


                      Second time lucky ? Perhaps .. check this out ..

                      Sources say efforts by the French and UK governments to persuade India to add the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon to the shortlist appear to have been successful.
                      http://www.flightinternational.com/A...by+India+.html

                      Comment

                      • Austin
                        Rank 5 Registered User

                        #12
                        Austin, looking at the amount of Eurofighter lobbying you are doing lately in several forums ... and advocating India buy 126 of it ( despite it being siverely inferior to the other MRCA contenders in various aspects ...like radar, TVC, A2G role...etc ...etc )... i must ask you if you get paid for this by EADS's PR department ??
                        Mate , If IAF/GOI decides MMRCA purchase based on Forums or yours and my lobbing for the same then I am sure I would have lobbied for F-22 .

                        There are lot to an aircraft purchase other then the so called *best* aircraft , There is the ever important Cost ,Offset, Support & Maintainance , TOT , GOI Strategic Decision ( if US A/C is selected ) , Previous experiences and Industry partnership, Concerns of GOI/IAF on Sanctions are few I can think off.

                        There is never a thing like *Best Aircraft* which gets selected , There is always a *Best Deal* you get depending on the prevailing circumstances , Its always a compro.

                        And What Makes you think I get paid , I just feel that Typhoon is an *underdog* , Bad Publicity & Bad Media , No one talks about its real potential , real orders in hand ,or its technical achievements or demerits .

                        Its always "Oh its a bad aircraft because it got delayed , its contorversial ,there is fight between partners , How can they develop such a aircraft , It has to be inferio .............. all such things receive good publicity.

                        saying the same thing about the 2052 enabled Mig-35
                        Whats the status of 2052 , and 2052 is not limited to Mig-35, It can be adopted to Mirage,LCA,SU-30..

                        The Mig-35 is a paper plane , Whats the point in stretching a late 70's early 80's design for the 21st century , same goes of Mirages.

                        The Typhoon and Rafale present better potential

                        And Please dont remind me of the RD-33 engine , Seeing Is Believing , I have seen 29 engines smoking at AE2005 , There seems to be a serious design problem with the RD-33 or after 15 years it wouldnt smoke.

                        Do you watch Mission Uddan , Could you make out the smoke on a 29.

                        The TVC project for the EJ200 appears suspended. Even if the project is still on, it may not enter service (after all the testing, etc) in another 7 years. The Mig-35, Su-30 MKI feature 3D and 2D TVC alredy.
                        Sorry Mate the EJ200 is the best of Breed European Engine, with a T/W ratio of 10:1 ( nearly arriving the 5th gen engine specs ) , TVC is not a great thing to develop at this time by Europeans , French or US . If there is a requirement they can develop it.

                        Also in this age of ASRAAM( including the Israel , German and others ) , How much can TVC do is a issue to think about, Although its a great thing to have But I will put my money on "Look First , Shoot First " , Something the Typhoon & Rafale can do well or has an advantage in.

                        New Russian RAM's can significantly bring down the RCS of the Mig-35 to the EF's standard.
                        Well do you expect the RCS of EF to remain constant , If you read the article , Quite a good amount of work is being done to make the RCS of Typhoon as lower as possible in Tranche-3

                        Also the Tranche-2 has good A2G capability and with Tranche-3 it will be fully multirole.

                        Also I see EF & Rafale with great potential to improve and upgrade during its life cycle of atleast 30 years in the IAF cant say the same for Mig-35 or Mirage-2000 MK2 , Some thing mentioned of EF are to do away with Vertical tail , TVC , AESA ( via AMSAR ) , Avionics etc.

                        Its also a good thing that EF and Rafale has been added in the MMRCA competation , As Def News has reported its now a 200 A/C deal with $ 8.5 billion at stake , we would have been at great loss and disadvantage if these two new birds were not added to the list.

                        Its also not a great idea to put all your egg in one basket , With russia we already had the Su-30MKI , Mig-29K ( most likely it will increase to total 60 A/C ) and the 5th gen PAK-FA. Its also a good idea to look at western A/C which has done quite well in the IAF like the Jags & Mirages.

                        On US Aircraft let me just post what Ja had stated yesterday and I quote

                        "The American candidates are a long shot, sure they come with the more desired weapons but the amount of control the US retains over any arms deal to any country is incredible (even with us here in Australia), you don't own any plane you only lease it, any upgrades has to go through the US Congress to be approved and then selling them after you are finished with them has to also be approved by the US, same goes with destroying them (this is why countries around the who used to use American planes still have them rusting away one disused airfields). " "
                        Last edited by Austin; 8th December 2005, 15:26.
                        "A map does you no good if you don't know where you are"

                        Comment

                        • Austin
                          Rank 5 Registered User

                          #13
                          Eye of the Storm [ Dated But Interesting ]www.edefenseonline.com

                          Eurofighter Typhoon's EW suite is central to the aircraft's power
                          by Bill Sweetman
                          Jul. 1, 2002

                          Early in April 2002, in a period of a few days, the Eurofighter consortium flew the first three production models of the Typhoon multi-role fighter. The first flights of these two-seat Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA), ordered under a 1998 contract, were an important milestone for Europe's largest defense project. Until then, Eurofighter testing had depended on seven development aircraft (DA), which had flown in the mid-1990s and had been ordered in 1987. The production design, for which the IPAs are test vehicles, is in many details a different aircraft.


                          Jamming signals are generated in the main avionics bay and transmitted at low power to amplifiers in the tip pods. "There are a lot of custom microwave integrated circuits and functions in the pods," said a Eurofighter source, "and a lot of performance crammed in there."

                          The Typhoon's TRD is a very important element of its jamming suite, and its main protection against monopulse tracking radars, which are insensitive to some classic forms of jamming. Eurofighter investigated the use of Cross-Eye jamming, "and it can be incorporated if we need it," BAE Systems technical manager Steve Roberts commented at a recent conference. However, the TRD is seen as the best defense against monopulse.

                          BAE Systems (then the GEC Avionics group) started work on TRDs in the early 1980s, under a then-secret program. Flight tests started in 1988, and in the following year, a decoy was tested at supersonic speeds on the BAE Experimental Aircraft Prototype (EAP), the precursor of the Typhoon. The BAE Systems Ariel TRD (named after the sprite in Shakespeare's The Tempest , who has a gift for mimicry) has been in service since late 1995 on the RAF's Tornado F.3 fighter, so the Typhoon's version of the Ariel is a true second-generation system.

                          The Ariel is a high-power, fiber-optic linked decoy, integrated with the DASS, rather than being a simple repeater. A threat is detected, located, and identified by the ESM system, and a jamming signal is generated aboard the aircraft. The system uses a techniques generator based on digital-RF-memory (DRFM) components and can produce a full range of noise and deception signals between 4.5 and 18 GHz. The RF signal is converted into modulated laser pulses and transmitted down the 100-meter fiber-optic cable to the decoy, which contains a transmitter.

                          A typical radar beam is 2 wide and consequently measures 100 m across at 3 km the minimum range of a small radar-guided surface-to-air missile such as the Russian Osa-AKM (SA-8) with a range cell some 150 m deep. Target and decoy appear in the same cell, producing a miss distance that is independent of range.

                          The signal from the decoy is power-managed to match the signal from the radar and the radar cross-section (RCS) of the target, which changes with aspect angle. According to Roberts, tests have shown that automated tracking systems are relatively easy to defeat. Track-while-scan radars find it virtually impossible to distinguish the target from the decoy; semi-active systems home on to the decoy, and command-to-line-of-sight (CLOS) systems can be confused by combining the TRD with chaff. Overall, BAE Systems claims that missile lethality can be reduced by up to 80% with the use of the TRD and that the TRD can be up to twice as effective as onboard jamming.

                          The initial Typhoon decoy is a high-speed version of Ariel, with a different drag-cone design that adjusts for different speeds. The decoy cannot be reeled back into the pod, but it can be towed for several hours. The fighter can tow it back to base and cut the cable before landing, and the decoy can then be recovered and reused.

                          By the time Typhoon enters service, however, the Ariel Mk2 should be available. Planned improvements include an increase in effective radiated power from 150 W to more than 500 W, to match peak skin echoes at short range, combined with a new antenna. It will also cost less than the Mk1. The improved TRD was ground-tested last year.

                          The Ariel Mk3, in the prototype stage, is an even more powerful decoy with a phased-array beam-steering device, providing full spherical coverage with 1.2 kW of power. "It runs so hot that it works as an IR decoy," said Roberts. BAE Systems in the UK is working with the company's US EW arm (Nashua, NH the former Sanders) on future technology, including a recoverable decoy.

                          Rounding out the DASS sensor suite is the missile-approach warner (MAW). This is an active, pulse-Doppler radar system with three antennas two in the wing roots and one in the tail. As a radar-based system, it can track threats after motor burnout, whether they are radar guided or IR seeking. The Typhoon also has a laser-warning system with multiple sensors since the laser spot may be smaller than the aircraft that can identify a laser threat and indicate its direction. Saab Tech (Linkping, Sweden) chaff and flare dispensers are installed under the wings. The flare dispensers are built into the flaperon actuator fairings, close to the engine exhausts, and the chaff is ejected from the outer missile pylons so that it is dispersed by the aerodynamic vortices shed by the wingtips.

                          Jamming, chaff, and flares are controlled automatically. ESM data is combined with radar and off-board information (such as target data received by datalink) to generate a fused tactical display in the cockpit, providing the pilot with a display of targets rather than raw sensor inputs. The computers look at the history of ESM spokes a series of signals intercepted over time, corresponding to a radar sweeping over the aircraft to resolve ambiguities and tie an ESM signal accurately to a radar return, allowing a target to be identified positively by its radar emissions.

                          Tempestuous Future

                          One unusual feature of the DASS is that it combines jamming and expendables with maneuver commands to the pilot, so as to make the best possible use of decoys. When an imminent threat is detected, symbols on the head-up display (HUD) tell the pilot to turn right or left and how many Gs to pull, and count down the seconds to the next evasive turn. The maneuver commands are tailored to evade the missile shot, based on time to intercept and arrival angle.

                          The DASS is starting tests on the Typhoon, which is due to be declared operational with NATO at the beginning of 2006. The system has been ground-tested in two rigs the first a DASS-specific system and the second linked to the rest of the avionics and elements have been installed in DA4, the British two-seater prototype, and tested in a new anechoic chamber at Warton.

                          The first production Typhoons a batch of 38 aircraft, all two-seaters, which will be mainly used for training will carry only the DASS computer and expendables. The ESM system is due to fly on DA4 this year and will be incorporated on the second batch of 105 aircraft, to be delivered from late 2003. These aircraft will support the fighter's entry into service. The last 35 aircraft in this group, to be delivered during 2005, are due to have the complete DASS installation, including the towed decoy, along with the Production Software Package (PSP) 3 that incorporates sensor fusion. Further improvements are likely for the second tranche of 236 aircraft, including a better ranging capability in the ESM system.

                          Integrating a complex EW system into a relatively small airframe is always a challenge, and nobody at Eurofighter can be under any illusion that there are no potential problems ahead. The design of the DASS, however, is an indication of what must be done to protect aircraft and crews in today's complex, confusing, and ambiguous combat environment.
                          After a long debate in the 1990s, including threats of cancellation from German politicians, the Typhoon is emerging into a world that has changed enormously since metal was cut on the DAs. Conceived as a weapon to break down Warsaw Pact fighter defenses and blunt air attacks in an all-out conventional war in Central Europe, the Typhoon is now regarded as an aircraft to be deployed worldwide at short notice, to support both combat and peacekeeping operations, and carrying both air-to-air and air-to-surface weapons.



                          A Typhoon in Luftwaffe colors almost didn't happen as German politicians repeatedly threatened to withdraw support from the four-nation Eurofighter consortium. At one point, the Germans were reluctant to invest in the Defensive Aids Subsystem, which would have fragmented the aircraft's EW fit by nationality, as on Tornado. In the end, the aircraft will enter service true to its European pedigree.

                          An internal Defensive Aids Subsystem (DASS) has been part of the Typhoon design since the start of the program; the original design provided volume, power, and cooling for the system, including wing-tip pods dedicated to EW equipment. This in itself was a change from the UK/German/Italian Tornado, where the partners could not agree on the installation of an active EW system in the basic aircraft. At one point, it appeared that Typhoon might go the same way, because of German reluctance to invest in the DASS. However, the absolute need for self-protection has now been recognized and all four Eurofighter nations the UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain are now participating in DASS development and will field a common system. Germany formally joined the DASS program last year.

                          DASS is "the most powerful EW system ever paid for by the UK or the other partners, and the most powerful system in Europe," asserted an Eurofighter engineer. The advantages of a "designed-in" system, he said, include the fact that "the antennas are all in the right place, and you can see everything." Also, the system "is not shoe-horned into the space available. It's a bottom-up design." That is to say, the DASS components were sized to meet an operational requirement.

                          The DASS provides threat warning, situational awareness, and countermeasures and deals with the full spectrum of threats, including radar, infrared, and laser. That in itself is not new. The DASS, however, is fully integrated into the Typhoon's avionics system. There is no separate DASS display in the cockpit, because the DASS is included in the sensor-fusion concept on which the mission avionics are based. Many DASS functions also involve automated communication with other parts of the aircraft.




                          Eurofighter's Development Aircraft 2 (DA2) with ASRAAM, a 1,000-liter external fuel tank, and the DASS wingtip pod with towed radar decoy (TRD). The Typhoon's TRD is a very important element of its jamming suite, and serves as its main protection against monopulse tracking radars, which are insensitive to some classic forms of jamming.

                          Major partners on the DASS include BAE Systems (Farnborough, UK) and Elettronica (Rome, Italy), both with previous experience on fast-jet internal EW systems. Flight Refueling Ltd. (Dorset, UK) heads the consortium that provides the chaff and flare dispensers and Teldix GmbH (Heidelberg, Germany) builds the Defensive Aids Computer (DAC).

                          Commanding the Elements

                          The major elements of the DASS include radio-frequency (RF) systems in the wing-tip pods, including a towed radar decoy (TRD) installation; under-wing chaff and flare dispensers; and missile and laser warning systems.

                          Eurofighter describes the RF receiver system as "more like an ESM [electronic-support-measures] system than a radar- warning receiver." It covers a frequency range from 90-100 MHz, including VHF-type surveillance radars to 10-GHz fighter radars, and can characterize radars based on their wavelength, pulse width, and scan pattern. The tightly packed tip pods are not identical. The left-side pod contains ESM antennas front and rear; on the right, since the left rear ESM antenna has a wide field of regard, the rear antenna is replaced by a bay for two TRDs. With two large antennas looking forward and one aft, the ESM sensors have a 360 field of view. Both pods incorporate spiral jamming antennas.

                          According to Eurofighter, the ESM sensors will detect "all relevant emitters" beyond the engagement range of the threat, and in some cases beyond the emitter's detection range. Some emitters can be detected by sidelobes as well as by their main beams, and the system is able to distinguish between radars that have similar characteristics. Threats are identified by comparing signals to an electronic library that is programmable by the customer: "Many systems, particularly from the US, are delivered with a threat library," comments an Eurofighter engineer, "but the customer does not know what is in it and cannot change it."

                          The ESM sensors are very accurate in bearing. In high-g maneuvering flight, where the wings flex, the flight control system passes g-loading information to the ESM system, which adjusts angle-of-arrival information to compensate for the movement of the tip pods. The ESM can be more accurate in bearing than the Typhoon's Captor radar and can be used to resolve multiple, closely spaced targets at long range. The Typhoon ESM provides an "estimate" of range, based mainly on signal amplitude.



                          After decades of debate, the Typhoon is emerging into a world that has changed enormously since metal was cut on the developmental aircraft. Conceived as an air-defense fighter to blunt a Warsaw Pact air offensive in Central Europe, the Typhoon is now regarded as an aircraft to be deployed worldwide at short notice, to support both combat and peacekeeping operations with air-to-air and air-to-surface weapons.

                          Jamming signals are generated in the main avionics bay and transmitted at low power to amplifiers in the tip pods. "There are a lot of custom microwave integrated circuits and functions in the pods," said a Eurofighter source, "and a lot of performance crammed in there."

                          The Typhoon's TRD is a very important element of its jamming suite, and its main protection against monopulse tracking radars, which are insensitive to some classic forms of jamming. Eurofighter investigated the use of Cross-Eye jamming, "and it can be incorporated if we need it," BAE Systems technical manager Steve Roberts commented at a recent conference. However, the TRD is seen as the best defense against monopulse.

                          BAE Systems (then the GEC Avionics group) started work on TRDs in the early 1980s, under a then-secret program. Flight tests started in 1988, and in the following year, a decoy was tested at supersonic speeds on the BAE Experimental Aircraft Prototype (EAP), the precursor of the Typhoon. The BAE Systems Ariel TRD (named after the sprite in Shakespeare's The Tempest , who has a gift for mimicry) has been in service since late 1995 on the RAF's Tornado F.3 fighter, so the Typhoon's version of the Ariel is a true second-generation system.

                          The Ariel is a high-power, fiber-optic linked decoy, integrated with the DASS, rather than being a simple repeater. A threat is detected, located, and identified by the ESM system, and a jamming signal is generated aboard the aircraft. The system uses a techniques generator based on digital-RF-memory (DRFM) components and can produce a full range of noise and deception signals between 4.5 and 18 GHz. The RF signal is converted into modulated laser pulses and transmitted down the 100-meter fiber-optic cable to the decoy, which contains a transmitter.

                          A typical radar beam is 2 wide and consequently measures 100 m across at 3 km the minimum range of a small radar-guided surface-to-air missile such as the Russian Osa-AKM (SA-8) with a range cell some 150 m deep. Target and decoy appear in the same cell, producing a miss distance that is independent of range.

                          The signal from the decoy is power-managed to match the signal from the radar and the radar cross-section (RCS) of the target, which changes with aspect angle. According to Roberts, tests have shown that automated tracking systems are relatively easy to defeat. Track-while-scan radars find it virtually impossible to distinguish the target from the decoy; semi-active systems home on to the decoy, and command-to-line-of-sight (CLOS) systems can be confused by combining the TRD with chaff. Overall, BAE Systems claims that missile lethality can be reduced by up to 80% with the use of the TRD and that the TRD can be up to twice as effective as onboard jamming.

                          The initial Typhoon decoy is a high-speed version of Ariel, with a different drag-cone design that adjusts for different speeds. The decoy cannot be reeled back into the pod, but it can be towed for several hours. The fighter can tow it back to base and cut the cable before landing, and the decoy can then be recovered and reused.

                          By the time Typhoon enters service, however, the Ariel Mk2 should be available. Planned improvements include an increase in effective radiated power from 150 W to more than 500 W, to match peak skin echoes at short range, combined with a new antenna. It will also cost less than the Mk1. The improved TRD was ground-tested last year.

                          The Ariel Mk3, in the prototype stage, is an even more powerful decoy with a phased-array beam-steering device, providing full spherical coverage with 1.2 kW of power. "It runs so hot that it works as an IR decoy," said Roberts. BAE Systems in the UK is working with the company's US EW arm (Nashua, NH the former Sanders) on future technology, including a recoverable decoy.

                          Rounding out the DASS sensor suite is the missile-approach warner (MAW). This is an active, pulse-Doppler radar system with three antennas two in the wing roots and one in the tail. As a radar-based system, it can track threats after motor burnout, whether they are radar guided or IR seeking. The Typhoon also has a laser-warning system with multiple sensors since the laser spot may be smaller than the aircraft that can identify a laser threat and indicate its direction. Saab Tech (Linkping, Sweden) chaff and flare dispensers are installed under the wings. The flare dispensers are built into the flaperon actuator fairings, close to the engine exhausts, and the chaff is ejected from the outer missile pylons so that it is dispersed by the aerodynamic vortices shed by the wingtips.

                          Jamming, chaff, and flares are controlled automatically. ESM data is combined with radar and off-board information (such as target data received by datalink) to generate a fused tactical display in the cockpit, providing the pilot with a display of targets rather than raw sensor inputs. The computers look at the history of ESM spokes a series of signals intercepted over time, corresponding to a radar sweeping over the aircraft to resolve ambiguities and tie an ESM signal accurately to a radar return, allowing a target to be identified positively by its radar emissions.

                          Tempestuous Future

                          One unusual feature of the DASS is that it combines jamming and expendables with maneuver commands to the pilot, so as to make the best possible use of decoys. When an imminent threat is detected, symbols on the head-up display (HUD) tell the pilot to turn right or left and how many Gs to pull, and count down the seconds to the next evasive turn. The maneuver commands are tailored to evade the missile shot, based on time to intercept and arrival angle.

                          The DASS is starting tests on the Typhoon, which is due to be declared operational with NATO at the beginning of 2006. The system has been ground-tested in two rigs the first a DASS-specific system and the second linked to the rest of the avionics and elements have been installed in DA4, the British two-seater prototype, and tested in a new anechoic chamber at Warton.

                          The first production Typhoons a batch of 38 aircraft, all two-seaters, which will be mainly used for training will carry only the DASS computer and expendables. The ESM system is due to fly on DA4 this year and will be incorporated on the second batch of 105 aircraft, to be delivered from late 2003. These aircraft will support the fighter's entry into service. The last 35 aircraft in this group, to be delivered during 2005, are due to have the complete DASS installation, including the towed decoy, along with the Production Software Package (PSP) 3 that incorporates sensor fusion. Further improvements are likely for the second tranche of 236 aircraft, including a better ranging capability in the ESM system.

                          Integrating a complex EW system into a relatively small airframe is always a challenge, and nobody at Eurofighter can be under any illusion that there are no potential problems ahead. The design of the DASS, however, is an indication of what must be done to protect aircraft and crews in today's complex, confusing, and ambiguous combat environment.

                          *** FAIR USE NOTICE. This message contains copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. It is being made available without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information in their efforts to advance their understanding of arms trade activities, for non-profit research and educational purposes only. I believe that this constitutes a 'fair use' of the copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law. If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use,' you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
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                          Last edited by Austin; 9th December 2005, 04:11.
                          "A map does you no good if you don't know where you are"

                          Comment

                          • Dubya
                            Senior Member

                            #14
                            Australia is NOT a potential customer. The RAAF has signed on for 100 JSF at least for the time being.

                            Comment

                            • Crazypilot
                              Rank 5 Registered User

                              #15
                              Originally posted by F-18 Hamburger
                              that's no Typhoon, that's just the ******* child of 4 nations that got stuck in the womb for so long.

                              now here's a Typhoon!
                              Hope I will see the Neuer Taifun in the Royal Norwegian AirForce
                              I guess you won't like it though

                              Comment

                              • aurcov
                                Rank 5 Registered User

                                #16
                                Eurofighter investigated the use of Cross-Eye jamming, "and it can be incorporated if we need it," BAE Systems technical manager Steve Roberts commented at a recent conference. However, the TRD is seen as the best defense against monopulse
                                F*ck! Eurofighter "investigated" the use of cross-eye jamming????
                                Falcon Edge EW suite of the F 16 blk. 60 already does this (that's the only way to escape monopulse radars of the AA missiles and SAMs)! F 16 can be 25 years old, and maybe less aerodinamically effective than the EF, but electronically...

                                Comment

                                • Stealth Spy
                                  Rank 6 Registered User

                                  #17
                                  Originally posted by Austin
                                  2052 is not limited to Mig-35, It can be adopted to Mirage,LCA,SU-30..
                                  And how does that make the Typhoon better

                                  The new Jane's article that came out says that there is a high possiblilty of it gettin into the Mig-35 >> http://forum.keypublishing.co.uk/sho...79&postcount=7

                                  The Mig-35 is a paper plane
                                  But not a paper as the tranche 3 that you speak of ... Mig-35 will roll out in 2006 ... while your tranche is still planned for 2015.

                                  And Please dont remind me of the RD-33 engine , Seeing Is Believing...Do you watch Mission Uddan , Could you make out the smoke on a 29.
                                  Well - the Rd-33 of the older Mig-29's smoke no doubt ... and these are the ones that are shown in Mission Udaan as the IAF does not operate the Mig-35 yet.

                                  The RD-33's of the newer Mig's come with smoke free and corossion resistant features....in addition to 3D TVC ...

                                  Pray you read these ...

                                  Initially plagued with reliability issues and 'smokiness', the Klimov RD-33 has spawned several updates for the latest in MiG-29 series such as the RD-33K,the RD-33-3M and the RD-33-10M as well as version that uses. These feature full corrosion protection and a smoke-free combustion chamber and the latter have highly uprated thrust for use on carrier based MiG-29K aircraft whose intakes have been enlarged for the purpose. HAL's Engine division set up an overhaul facility for RD-33 engines in 1997.
                                  http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_228.shtml

                                  _________
                                  New MiG engine for India to be tested by Russian experts

                                  Russian experts will today begin testing a new engine for the MiG 29 aircraft destined for India at a plant in St Petersburg.

                                  The new Box Jellyfish engine, an upgraded model of the RD-33 engine for MiG-29 Fulcrum fighter, would be used for MiG-29s for the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier, which Russia is currently modernizing for the Indian Navy.

                                  The new engine will be superior to the previous models in terms power and will retain all the advantages of the basic model, the RIA Novosti agency quoted a spokesman as saying.
                                  http://news.webindia123.com/news/sho...0927&cat=India

                                  TVC is not a great thing to develop at this time ... If there is a requirement they can develop it.
                                  That sounds like "if i cant have it .... then its useless"

                                  Who says they're not developing it ... check this out ... http://www.eurofighter-typhoon.co.uk...r/engines.html

                                  However its now in "stealth mode" ... just like the thundaar ... and that makes me doubt if they can develop it .

                                  Its no closely guarded secret that 3D TVC increases the manuverability vastly.

                                  Also in this age of ASRAAM How much can TVC do is a issue to think about, Although its a great thing to have But I will put my money on "Look First , Shoot First " , Something the Typhoon & Rafale can do well or has an advantage in.
                                  Is that ASRAAM an excuse to defend an airplane with inferior manuverability ?
                                  Are you presuming that the Mig-35 or F/A-18 wont have potent Russian/Israeli/American WVR missiles as well ??


                                  Well do you expect the RCS of EF to remain constant , If you read the article , Quite a good amount of work is being done to make the RCS of Typhoon as lower as possible in Tranche-3
                                  Read your own article ... the tranche 3 is only planned for 2015 .... by that time it would be safe to think that Russian airplanes would be flying around with palsma screens ... while your tranche 3 will fly with its new paint.

                                  That highlighted part of the article implies that the TVC is only coming in 2015 along with the tranche 3 ... now how long is that ...the mig alredy has 3d tvc !!

                                  Also I see EF & Rafale with great potential to improve and upgrade during its life cycle of atleast 30 years in the IAF cant say the same for Mig-35 or Mirage-2000 MK2 , Some thing mentioned of EF are to do away with Vertical tail , TVC , AESA ( via AMSAR ) , Avionics etc.
                                  the mig-35 has open architecture avionics based on a western bus ... pray you tell me why it cant be upgraded.

                                  It might come with TVC and AESA as well .... while if the EF is chosen the IAF must wait till 2015 for these and God knows how many cost overruns and time delays these will have to go through .

                                  In the mean time dont ecpect the others to stay still ... imagiene how advanced the others would have become by this time .

                                  And are you suggesting that the IAF should buy the EF now ... operate for a few years and saw out its vertical tails .... come'on man are you serious

                                  Its also not a great idea to put all your egg in one basket , With russia we already had the Su-30MKI , Mig-29K ( most likely it will increase to total 60 A/C ) and the 5th gen PAK-FA. Its also a good idea to look at western A/C which has done quite well in the IAF like the Jags & Mirages.
                                  The Russians have alredy that they are prepared to give 100% tech transfer to India and so every spare part can be produced locally and thus India will not have to be attached to any unbilical chord of the supplier.

                                  Check out the Mig-29K deal for the Navy ...

                                  MOSCOW, December 6 (RIA Novosti) - Russia has signed a contract with the Indian Navy to deliver 16 MiG-29K Fulcrum D fighters, a MiG official said Tuesday.

                                  Addressing an international economic forum on Russia-India strategic cooperation in the 21st century, Mikhail Globenko, head of the company's regional marketing and sales department, said the fighters were equipped with special systems that had been developed and manufactured in India.

                                  "It is important that the deal outlines the idea of setting up a consignment warehouse and a technological service center in India," Globenko said, adding that this move would help provide timely and uninterrupted supplies of spare parts to India.

                                  "We intend to do the same for the planes that we supply to the Indian Air Force," he said.
                                  http://en.rian.ru/russia/20051206/42332121.html

                                  This argument of yours that it would be risky putting all eggs into one basket is inherently flawed.

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                                  • Pit
                                    Pit
                                    Arrogant SOB

                                    #18
                                    Aurcov, KNIIRTI L-005S "Sorbtsiya", the jammer pods of Su-27S does "Cross-Eye jamming" since 1990 when the equipment was certified and installed since batch 28 of Su-27S.

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                                    • tphuang
                                      Rank 5 Registered User

                                      #19
                                      EF-2000 beats Mig-35 and everything else offered in MRCA easily. The Captor radar is better than many electronically steered radar. The avionics is first class. The manuverability of this thing is also unmatched due to its high T/W ratio, canard-delta wing. It's instantaneous and sustained turn rate cannot possibly be matched by Mig-35 or M2K. If IAF doesn't choose EF, it would be due to the cost rather than the performance of EF.

                                      Think about it, one EF showed that it can take down two F-15Es. Can Mig-35 do the same?
                                      Visit my Chinese military blog at http://china-pla.blogspot.com/

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                                      • Austin
                                        Rank 5 Registered User

                                        #20
                                        Mate Comparing The Typhoon to the Mig-35 is like comparing Apples to Oranges , The Typhoon along with its European Sister Rafale have just started their squadron life , and the Mig has gone through infinite upgrade and many avtars ,I remember a few there was the 29M,2M2 , SMT , MRCA and what not .

                                        The definative variant the Mig-35 have been offered to India , The biggest problem with Mig-29 (variant ) is that it has always been a paper tiger looks so good to hear TVC, RAM, New Engine......, Had they been chosen only on based of what has been mentioned on paper they would have even defeated the rafale & Typhoon.

                                        Mig-29 still needs to demonstrate its full MultiRole Capability , So far it has been an Air-Superiority fighter , Even the Mirages has a proven and demonstrated MultiRole Capability .

                                        The new Jane's article that came out says that there is a high possiblilty of it gettin into the Mig-35 >>
                                        The article says that " It is unclear if Russia will master serial production
                                        of AESA technology before India needs it. Therefore, the third rival, the Israeli Elta EL/M-2052 AESA radar, stands a good chance of success. "

                                        Now if the IAF badly needs AESA via the Israel Route , Since practically speaking there is no AESA with 35 at best they have Bars-29 to offer , The 2052 has also been offered to Mirage and other craft , If the IAF needs it they can get it for other A/C too not limited to 35 . Dosent matter what Janes have to say High Possibility etc.

                                        But not a paper as the tranche 3 that you speak of ... Mig-35 will roll out in 2006 ... while your tranche is still planned for 2015.
                                        Try looking at what Tranche 2 has to offer , But again I repeat Mig-35 is a paper tiger , Desperate attempt by Mig to sell the 35 to India .

                                        Heck there is no 35 till now even the Mirage-2000-5 MK2 is a flying bird, Not to mention the Mirages are proven in French AF and the IAF.

                                        The RD-33's of the newer Mig's come with smoke free and corossion resistant features....in addition to 3D TVC.... ...Initially plagued with reliability issues and 'smokiness', the Klimov RD-33 has spawned several updates for the latest HAL's Engine division set up an overhaul facility for RD-33 engines in 1997.
                                        Yawn .........Seeing is believing , Even some one at BRF was complaining that he has seen Smoke coming like Diesel Truck from the 29 at the recent Dubai Airshow

                                        http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/phpBB2...asc&&start=200

                                        I have seen the so called MRCA at AE2005 , Even the Build quality was not as good at the new Mirage-2000 on display and the MKI , Not to mention it was *SMOKkkkkkkkkkk...................Y* .

                                        Dont show me some good reports on how they will deliver non smoky engine , Had I not seen with my Eye I would have believed you , Even After 20 years if the RD-33 variant cannot deliver non-smoky engine , Then I think its a serious design flaw with the RD-33


                                        That sounds like "if i cant have it .... then its useless"However its now in "stealth mode" ... just like the thundaar ... and that makes me doubt if they can develop it . Its no closely guarded secret that 3D TVC increases the manuverability vastly.
                                        I have read on the EJ TVC before , But TVC as of now is not a high priority for EF nor is stealth , So they have basic RCS features on EF and TVC will come along with Tranche-3 starting 2012 , Have you seen the specs of EJ200 , Do you think even the RD-33 or even the AL-31FP will ever get close to it , The EJ200 has a T/W ratio of 10:1 quite close to the stated T/W ratio of AL-41F1 11:1 , which means quite close to a 5th gen engine , also they are not limited to EJ200 but have other variant too.

                                        Again comparing EJ200 to RD-33 is a apple and orange comparasion .

                                        Its a good thing to have TVC , But tommorows battle would be won by those who has "Look First , Shoot First" capability , and guess who has it here.

                                        Read your own article ... the tranche 3 is only planned for 2015 .... by that time it would be safe to think that Russian airplanes would be flying around with palsma screens ... while your tranche 3 will fly with its new paint.
                                        Yes and what else would the Russian plane will be flying with Anti-Matter Propulsion and Cloaking Devices, and Photon Guns

                                        Oh BTW the latest Miltech 11/2005 says that the revised date for the PAK-FA T-50 project is 2015 , which is the inservice date.

                                        the mig-35 has open architecture avionics based on a western bus ... pray you tell me why it cant be upgraded. The Russians have alredy that they are prepared to give 100% tech transfer to India and so every spare part can be produced locally and thus India will not have to be attached to any unbilical chord of the supplier.
                                        Emm... Even the French has promised full TOT and shifting of Prod Lines to India for the Mirages , At the end of the day the Mirages is liked by the IAF and a very proven craft , compared to the paper proven Mig-35.

                                        Whats Your Take :diablo:

                                        My Suggestion for the Mig-35 , sorry the promised Mig-35 is that they should look at the IN for it , the IN will mostlikely increase its 29K fleet 30 to 60 A/C , the Mig can deliver those TVC,BARS .......etc to the 29K program, Atlest they have a assured market there.

                                        Also IN has a better way of dealing with promised goodies

                                        Since India is not interested in the heavy PAK-FA T-50 and looking at something lighter for its 5th Gen A/C , They might as well work with Mig on their Mig-E project , It seems it fits the IAF requitement of a Medium 5th gen fighter with MTOW of 25 tons which is what the Mig-E is supposed to be.

                                        It would keep the fund flowing at Mig and IAF too would get its tailored 5th Gen Fighter , Instead of opting for the Heavy Russian AirForce Centric T-50 .

                                        Also it seems Mig-E could be a good export earner in the long run ,And Financially more attractive proposition.


                                        So how does the Mig-35 compare with F-16 Block 50/52 , Block 60 , Sufa and the Mirage-2K-5 MK2 ???
                                        Last edited by Austin; 11th December 2005, 09:49.
                                        "A map does you no good if you don't know where you are"

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