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Thread: Turkish aerospace

  1. #511
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    I am advised that the above path has been abandoned by the Turkish Navy in December 2016. This is the current situation with the TF-2000 AAW Class light destroyer/frigate.

    Local Air Defence Missile System For TF-2000
    https://turkishnavy.net/2016/12/05/l...m-for-tf-2000/


    Defence acquisition agency Undersecreteriat For Defence industries (UDI) has started a development project for air defence missiles to be used TF-2000 warship.
    According to the website of UDI, the aim of the project is to procure short/medium and long-range air defence missile, which can be integrated with the combat management system, multi-purpose phased array radar system and TF-2000 platform and capable of force and zone air defense.
    The project model is local development. There will be a short/medium ranged missile and a long ranged missile. The shot text also mentions the system of the missile. What we should understand from it is at the moment a bit unclear. The UDI states that a request for proposal regarding the design and development phase is under preparation.
    At the moment Turkey has developed two air defence missiles:
    Hisar-A low altitude missile system
    Hisar-O medium altitude missile system.
    These missiles were developed for the army to protect military bases, ports, facilities and troops against threats from the air. Their targets are military aircraft, attack helicopters, cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. According to Roketsan producer of the missiles, they present a modular structure with the integrity of a family and are designed to be compatible with different platform integrations.
    Both missiles have high explosive fragment warhead, mid-course guidance with inertial navigation and data link terminal guidance with IIR (imaging infrared seeker). The range of Hisar-A is 15 km and the range of Hisar-O is 25km. It is too early to say, whether the recently announced naval air defence missiles will be developed from the existing Hisar missiles or build from the scratch.
    The command and control and fire control systems for the land based Hisar air defence system is done by military electronics company Aselsan. Aselsan is also developing the phased array radar to be used for the TF-2000 air defence frigate. Thus the development of the electronics for the air defence system will be carried out by them.
    With the initiation of this project, Turkey takes another step to the realisation of TF-2000 air defence frigate.
    Last edited by Bayar; 16th July 2017 at 13:45.

  2. #512
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    JSR wrote: "you have been corrected several times regarding technical parameters about Russian systems."

    I am as prone to error as anyone, but do not take 'corrections' seriously if they are based on near-worthless sources such as Sputnik and RT. No-one in the open-source intelligence community pays any attention to either of these organisations.

    The story that you linked to shows just how out of touch with reality Sputnik is. It explains how the Buk M3 system "was first closely showcased at the international military-technical forum Army-2016... The existence of the system was later confirmed by Russia's Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu".

    By 2016 nobody needed any confirmation that Buk M3 existed. The earliest document in my files that mentions Buk M3 dates to late 2014, but the West had been aware that system existed for several years before that date. Jane's had published a photo of a Buk M3 TEL at least a year before the 'Army 2016' exhibition.
    Mercurius Cantabrigiensis

  3. #513
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    OK.. and what does it change?

  4. #514
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    It only change the subject not the substance . He already attracted BIO and TR-1 with his statements. I believe buk-M3 already has naval version . It is followed up with S350 navalized and than S500. There is clear technology path.

  5. #515
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    bring_it_on wrote: "Have you gone through each and every PAC-3, and PAC-3 MSE intercept made public?"

    Obviously not! My brain must not have been fully on-line when I wrote that posting - good evidence that an old man's memory is far from reliable. I had also forgotten that the Russian 9M96 series use gas-dynamic control in the later stages of flight. (All MANPADS outside of the latest generation are contact fuzed, as are early models of Rapier, but the original discussion was talking about medium and heavy SAMs.)
    Thanks. BTW, is there a good source for the Aster-30s Ballistic Missile target intercept record and what the TBM test series looks like for the weapon and program (number of engagements, type of targets, number of targets etc etc)?
    Last edited by bring_it_on; 17th July 2017 at 02:51.
    Old radar types never die; they just phased array

  6. #516
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    There is no single source that I am aware of. Before my semi-retirement I used to have on-line access to the Jane's magazines. Their 'Missiles & Rockets' (or was it 'Rockets and Missiles' - I cannot remember which one was the Jane's title and which was the US magazine published in the late fifties and early sixties) used to report most of the Aster test firings soon after each happened. But like several of the other more-specialised Jane's titles, it was closed several years ago.
    Mercurius Cantabrigiensis

  7. #517
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    Besides Israel, Turkey remains the only Asian nation to fly the F-35 aircraft,
    Doh! Someone should tell Japan & S. Korea.
    Juris praecepta sunt haec: honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere.
    Justinian

  8. #518
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    Don’t forget that the largest X band radar currently in production has made the switch to GaN and all subsequent deliveries at s rate of one to two sets a year (depending upon export orders) will be using GaN. The first radar post the switch is currently being made and will be delivered over the next few months. In addition to the nations mentioned above and the U.S. that has the largest GaN portfolio of sensors in development in the world, Israel too has significant capability to produce and deliver long range radars utilizing GaN.
    Indeed. I named Sweden, the Netherlands & Italy because their capabilities may not be as well known as other countries, particularly big ones. Japan's another obvious example.
    Juris praecepta sunt haec: honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere.
    Justinian

  9. #519
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    Bayar wrote: "Turkey-NATO relations will never be the same as pre-15 July 2016. The fact that coup sided F-16's were refueled from NATO bases..."

    My understanding was that the refuelling was done by a Turkish AF KC-135R tanker aircraft from 101 Filo operating out of Incirlik. You cannot blame NATO for an air operation apparently conducted by the host nation's aircraft from an airfield on the host nation's territory.
    Well said, Mercurius.

    Doubtless he'd complain bitterly if any of Turkey's NATO allies tried to prevent Turkish air force aircraft taking off from bases in Turkey it allows those allies to use. It'd be a gross infringement of Turkish sovereignty.
    Juris praecepta sunt haec: honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere.
    Justinian

  10. #520
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    There is no single source that I am aware of. Before my semi-retirement I used to have on-line access to the Jane's magazines. Their 'Missiles & Rockets' (or was it 'Rockets and Missiles' - I cannot remember which one was the Jane's title and which was the US magazine published in the late fifties and early sixties) used to report most of the Aster test firings soon after each happened. But like several of the other more-specialised Jane's titles, it was closed several years ago.
    Thanks Merc. I did go through Jane's Missiles & Rockets and other references but could find only 3 missile intercepts till date (one developmental and 2 with operational crews), one each in 2010 and 2011 and another in 2013. All against Rafael's Black Sparrow air launched weapon. I couldn't find any additional tests or higher intensity tests etc so was wondering if there was a more comprehensive list somewhere or if additional testing has even occurred.
    Last edited by bring_it_on; 17th July 2017 at 20:16.
    Old radar types never die; they just phased array

  11. #521
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    Much awaited details on the TF-X Engine and the new Turkish Air Engine Company (TAEC), a 51% Kale Group, 49% Rolls-Royce joint-venture.

    Rolls-Royce: "We have already received export licences" from the British Government for the engine technology transfer to Turkey.

    It will be a next generation engine with thrust-vectoring?

    "Director of Rolls-Royce's Defense Group Mr. Chris Cholerton expressed that they were happy to seize the opportunity to collaborate with Kale Group within the scope of the Turkish Fighter Program to develop an indigenous engine, the Intellectual Property Rights of which will entirely be possessed by Turkey and which will not be subject to export restrictions"




    Last edited by Bayar; 18th July 2017 at 13:58.

  12. #522
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    ASELSAN begins working on sub-systems development and integration at its new facilities allocated for TF-X work.



    Another TF-X rendering


  13. #523
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    It will be interesting to see if that changes once the BAE engineers get their feet under the table.

  14. #524
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    https://lenta.ru/news/2017/07/18/noway/

    Chemezov- production of S-400 in Turkey is impossible in the near future.
    http://img818.imageshack.us/img818/9098/rsz11rsz3807.jpg

  15. #525
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    По его данным, речь идет о продаже четырех дивизионов системы на общую сумму около 2,5 миллиарда долларов. Два дивизиона должны быть переданы в готовом из России в течение двух лет с момента подписания контракта, а еще два — собраны в Турции.
    "We are talking about the sale of four divisions of the system for a total of about 2.5 billion dollars. Two divisions must be transferred in ready-made from Russia within two years from the date of signing the contract, and two more are assembled in Turkey"

    It remains to be seen to what extent Turkish Industry will be involved in the S-400 production. No one is claiming that Turkey will receive a ToT for all the technology involved. Turkey is only interested in the rocket propulsion system technology.

  16. #526
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    Turkey continues deployment to Qatar-begins deployment of heavy artillery units. Al Udeid Air Base now has a new neighbour.

    Two NATO (US and Turkey) allies side by side in Qatar, Somalia and Djibouti.



    Last edited by Bayar; 19th July 2017 at 04:32.

  17. #527
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    The deal between Turkey and EUROSAM is not for the Aster 30 but a new long-range Air Defence system to be developed by Italy-France-Turkey based on the STAMP/T

    Turkey, close to S-400 deal, also goes for Eurosam solution
    By: Burak Ege Bekdil, July 18, 2017 (Photo Credit: Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
    http://www.defensenews.com/articles/...rosam-solution

    ANKARA — Every new day Turkey and Russia are inching closer to a final deal on the Turkish acquisition of the Russian-made S-400 air defense architecture. But the Ankara government also said it reached a deal with the European group Eurosam to develop a similar air and anti-missile defense system.

    Rostec, the Russian company brokering the S-400 deal, has said that Ankara and Moscow agreed on all technical matters for the S-400 program – which US officials warn and Turkish authorities admit would not be interoperable with the U.S. and NATO assets deployed on Turkish soil. Turkish ambassador to Moscow, Huseyin Dirioz, has said that the Turkish work to assess the Russian solution is continuing.

    “The S-400 solution stems from [Turkey’s] urgent requirement,” Turkish Defense Minister Fikri Isik said.

    But Isik also said that Turkey and Eurosam have agreed to jointly develop a similar air and anti-missile defense system “in line with Turkey’s requirements.”

    “This [Eurosam program] is a high-caliber and big project … involving research and development and co-production,” Isik said. “Turkey, Italy and France will seek to define the [air defense] requirement for all three countries.” Eurosam is a majority Italian-French partnership.

    Earlier this year the Turkish government said it may buy the S-400 for its near-mystery program to build the country’s first long-range air and anti-missile defense system.

    For its long-range air defense system, dubbed T-LORAMIDS, Turkey in September 2013 selected China Precision Machinery Import-Export Corporation’s $3.44 billion solution, which defeated rival bids from Eurosam, maker of the SAMP/T; a consortium of Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, maker of the Patriot system; and the Russian-made S-300/S-400 option.

    Under pressure from its NATO allies, Turkey later scrapped the preliminary deal with CPMIEC and the competition. Since then Ankara has held talks with the Western contenders, but it also commissioned two domestic state-controlled companies, Aselsan and Roketsan, to locally develop the system.

  18. #528
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    France-Italy-Turkey are developing a new high-altitude air defence system.

    EUROSAM, TOGETHER WITH ASELSAN AND ROKETSAN, LAY THE FOUNDATION OF STRATEGIC COOPERATION IN AIR AND MISSILE DEFENCE
    http://www.mbda-systems.com/eurosam-...ssile-defence/

    The heads of Eurosam, Aselsan and Roketsan – respectively Michel Vigneras, Faik Eken and Selçuk Yaşar – have signed on the 14th of July in Ankara a Heads of Agreement (HoA) under the aegis of the Turkish Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM) to launch in-depth co-operation in the field of air and missile defence.

    The HoA sets the work sharing agreements for a definition study with the SSM on a long-range air and missile defence system to be launched in the coming months.
    The future Turkish air and missile system will be based on the technologies and experience that Eurosam has built in ground and naval systems using the Aster missile over 25 years and EUR11 billion of collective investment. These systems have been delivered to the current home nations of France and Italy, many export nations, and are able to defeat the most challenging of air threats, whether air breathing or ballistic. The future programme will be managed in synergy with future evolutions of the Eurosam systems in France and Italy.

    At the occasion of the HoA signature, Eurosam CEO Michel Vigneras said: “The Italian Army has deployed two Eurosam-built SAMP/T firing units since June 2016 as part of NATO’s contribution to the defence of Turkey and its people against potential missile threats from beyond NATO’s southeastern flank. Today’s agreement is a clear demonstration of the willingness and readiness of our 3 companies to build further on the strong defence co-operation commitments already in place and to work together as equal partners, towards a common goal and sharing full and entire responsibility vis-à-vis the Turkish authorities. I am confident that today, we have laid the foundation of a long term co-operation between Eurosam and the Turkish defence industry.

    Notes to editors :

    ASELSAN:
    Established in 1975, ASELSAN is the largest defense electronics company of Turkey whose capability/product portfolio comprises communication and information technologies, radar and electronic warfare, electro-optics, avionics, unmanned systems, land, naval and weapon systems, air defence and missile systems, command and control systems, transportation, security, traffic, automation and medical systems. Today ASELSAN has become an indigenous products exporting company, investing in international markets through various cooperation models with local partners and listed as one of the top 100 defence companies of the world.

    EUROSAM:
    Eurosam was established in June 1989 as a joint venture of MBDA and THALES. eurosam is the industrial prime contractor and system design authority for the development, production, marketing and sales of a range of medium and long range naval and ground-launched air-defence missile systems also known as Future Surface-to-Air Family of missile systems.These systems were developed under contract from the French and Italian Governments, who in the late 1980s had come to similar conclusions as to their air-defence operational requirements. These called for naval and ground-launched missiles capable of defeating threats as diverse as high-speed tactical missiles (supersonic sea skimmers, air-launched, anti-radiation, cruise, TBM and other types) and highly-manoeuvering aircraft, in a saturation attack scenario. The key capability of these systems is their capability of, simultaneously, engaging multiple targets, in any type combination, over 360 degrees.

    ROKETSAN:
    ROKETSAN, was founded in 1988 by the resolution of the Turkish Defense Industries Executive Committee for the purpose of possessing a leading institution in the country for designing, developing and manufacturing rockets and missiles. Nowadays, ROKETSAN has become the proud manufacturer of world class products such as the SOM Stand Off Missile, the UMTAS Long Range Anti Tank Missile System, the OMTAS Medium Range and the CIRIT 2’75” diameter Laser Guided Missile.

  19. #529
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    Turkey and Russia sign S-400 co-production deal.

    General Dunford of US says "US is concerned"

    Deals inked with Russia for S-400 defense systems: President Erdoğan
    ANKARA, July/25/2017

    http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/dea...&NewsCatID=345

    Turkey and Russia have signed a deal for the delivery of the S-400 anti-missile defense systems, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has said.

    “We have now taken steps with Russia about this issue. Deals have been inked. In God’s will, we will see S-400 missiles in our country and precede the process with joint production,” he said, addressing the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) in parliament on July 25.

    “Why will it cause tension? Greece, a NATO member, has been using S-300s for years,” he stated.

    Turkey was not able to co-operate with the U.S. over the missile system, he said, adding that this was why Turkey was seeking alternatives.

    Erdoğan added that Turkey would’ve opted for a joint production if there had been an opportunity.

    “It would be a concern, were they to do that, but they have not done that,” Gen. Joseph Dunford, U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff chair, had said when asked about media reports on Turkey purchasing the S-400 system from Russia, which he called “incorrect.”

    Russian presidential aide Vladimir Kozhin said late June that Moscow and Ankara had agreed on the delivery of the S-400 mobile systems but that the Kremlin had not approved a loan for the deal.

    The S-400 system was introduced in 2007 and can carry three types of missiles capable of destroying ground and air targets, including ballistic and cruise missiles.

    It can track and engage up to 300 targets simultaneously and has an altitude ceiling of 27 kilometers (17 miles).

  20. #530
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    More on the Turkey-Russia S-400 Co-production Deal

    Turkey has signed 2 contracts on long-range air defence systems in a period of one week. A join-development effort with EUROSAM on the one hand and a co-production deal with Russia's Rostec on S-400 systems. Turkey intends to amalgamate technology it has obtained from development of its HISAR Low and Medium Range Air Defence systems, CAFRAD & HIRS Radars and the deals with Rostec and EUROSAM to develop an indigenous solution.


    It's Official, Turkey Is Getting Russia's S-400 Air Defense System


    The Turkish military does desperately needs its own long-range air defenses, but there are far more issues at play.

    BY JOSEPH TREVITHICKJULY 25, 2017

    Turkey has reportedly signed deal to co-produce the S-400 surface to air missile system with Russia. The plan has already provoked criticism from the country’s fellow NATO members and could further strain its relations with the alliance.

    http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone...defense-system

    Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan made the announcement during a parliamentary meeting with other members of his Justice and Development Party, more commonly known by its acronym AKP, on July 25, 2017. Turkey and Russia have been negotiating the arrangement since November 2016 and Turkish officials reported these talks were in their “final stage” in April 2017.

    “We have now taken steps with Russia about this issue. Deals have been inked,” Erdoğan told the AKP MPs. “In God’s will, we will see S-400 missiles in our country and precede the process with joint production.”

    The S-400 Triumf is a road-mobile long-range surface to air missile system. Each self-propelled or semi-trailer-mounted launcher has four missiles, which have ranges up to 250 miles depending on the variant. Search and tracking radars, including those in the X- and L-bands, give the complete system the ability to spot and engage both short-range ballistic missiles and low-flying cruise missiles, according to the manufacturer Almaz-Antei.

    Technology transfer and shared production have been core Turkish demands. As part of an overarching push for a self-sufficient domestic arms industry, Turkey has or is looking into production or co-production of fifth generation fighter jets and other military aircraft, tanks and self-propelled artillery, small arms, and more. We don't know the final price tag for the proposed S-400 deal and with declines in Turkish defense spending – it only budgeted approximately 1.56 percent of its GDP to defense in 2016, according to NATO, compared to more than the desired two percent in 2009 – the country may eventually have to scale back any final purchases.

    It is also possible that the arrangement with Russia may ultimately include plans for a Turkish-specific derivative of the system, which NATO calls the SA-21 Growler, with unique features. All in all, the S-400’s capabilities make it a perfect anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) tool against enemy aircraft and missiles, which may worry both potential foes and friends, as Russia's own missiles in Syria already have done.

    “Why will it cause tension?” Erdoğan questioned at the AKP meeting. “A country should be in search for the ideal ways for its own security.”

    These particular remarks were almost surely pointed at U.S. Marine Corps General Joseph Dunford, the U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Just days earlier, the American military’s top officer had rejected reports that Turkey was about to buy S-400 missiles and suggested it could be a problem if they did move ahead with the purchase.

    “There was a media report that was incorrect,” Dunford said at the Aspen Security Forum on July 22, 2017. “They have not bought the S-400 air defense system from Russia. That would be a concern, were they to do that, but they have not done that.”

    Ostensibly, American officials have been critical of the plan because the Russian system is not compatible with other NATO equipment and infrastructure. The alliance has various interoperability requirements for military gear in order to streamline operations among its members. A member state using non-standard equipment could potentially lead to command and control, logistical, or other problems during an actual conflict.

    Erdoğan was quick to point out that Greece, another NATO member that his country has still had repeated skirmishes with over the past six decades, operates older Russian-made S-300 systems. What the Turkish leader failed to mention was that this only occurred because of his country’s near violent anger at Cyprus, which is not a member of the alliance, purchasing these weapons in the first place.

    Since 1974, Turkey has supported an otherwise unrecognized independent country on the island known as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which stands in opposition to the predominantly Greek southern portion. As part of its agreement to defend the ethnically Turkish population, the government in Ankara had threatened a preemptive strike against the S-300 batteries after they arrived in 1997. Ultimately, Greece agreed to take the missiles in exchange for undisclosed military equipment and monetary compensation. Cyprus subsequently obtained less capable and shorter range Russian-made surface to air missile systems.

    To be fair, in 2015, Greece was reportedly looking to purchase new missiles and other services from Russia in order to keep its S-300 batteries operational. The bigger question in that case was whether Greece, hopping from one political crisis to another and suffering a severe budget shortfall, would be able to actually pay for the upgrade program. As of February 2017, those negotiations were reportedly still ongoing.


    Regardless, in Turkey’s case, the purchase seems to be wrapped up in a number of long-standing issues, the most important being the desire to develop a domestic production capability for a long-range air defense system, which the country desperately needs. Since the end of the Cold War, the Turkish military has only become more and more aware of its limited anti-aircraft and anti-ballistic missile defenses.

    As of 2016, the Turkish Air Force, which operates its short-, medium- and long-range surface to air missile systems was still using a mix of aging American MIM-23 HAWK and British Rapier systems, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies’ The Military Balance for that year. It may still have had some number of even older MIM-14 Nike Hercules missiles at static sites.

    With only these limited defenses, since 1990, the government in Ankara has requested the deployment of NATO members and their surface-to-air missiles – mainly Patriot systems – on no less than three occasions in order to bolster its own defenses against regional threats. Between 1990 and 1991, American forces brought Patriot batteries to defend against possible Iraqi Scud attacks as part of Operations Anchor Guard and Ace Guard. In February 2003, ahead of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, the Pentagon agreed to repeat the move as part of Operation Display Deterrence.

    More recently, in 2013, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands all sent Patriots to Turkey as part of Operation Anatolian Protector. Turkish officials requested the deployment primarily over concerns about Syrian Scud missiles. Spanish forces ultimately took over the NATO Patriot missile mission in the country, but the U.S. military continues to operate a secretive long-range AN/TPY-2 radar site.

    At the same time, the country formally began looking to finally purchase its own such system as part of a competition known as the Turkish Air Force Long Range Air and Missile Defense System (T-LORAMIDS) program. Turkey quickly selected China’s FD-2000, the export designation for the HQ-9 surface to air missile system, as the winner in 2013. The weapon and its associated radar and fire control systems are visually and functionally similar to the Russian S-300V. The HQ-9’s missile have a reported maximum range of approximately 120 miles and, paired with the right sensors, can supposedly act as a limited ballistic missile defense system.


    As with the new decision to buy the S-400, the Chinese missile plan prompted the same concerns from NATO and the United States. U.S. defense contractor Raytheon had submitted the theater ballistic missile defense version of its Patriot system, known as Guidance Enhanced Missile-TBM or GEM-T, while European consortium Eurosam had submitted its Aster 30. Raytheon reportedly lost out due to a inability or unwillingness to share the requisite amount of technology, while Eurosam’s option apparently proved too costly. Russia had also submitted the S-300 system, which would have been a close competitor to the FD-2000.

    “We have conveyed our serious concerns about the Turkish Government’s contract discussions with the U.S.-sanctioned company for a missile defense system that will not be interoperable within – with NATO systems or collective defense capabilities,” Marie Harf, then Deputy State Department Spokesperson, told reporters on Oct 7, 2013, echoing many of the U.S. government’s concerns and objections to the new S-400 deal.

    After nearly two years of immense pressure from the United States, Turkey yanked the FD-2000 deal in November 2015. Turkish President Erdoğan and other officials claimed the decision was so that the country could refocus resources on its own domestic development program. A year later, the country was in talks with the Russians about buying S-400.

    Given General Dunford’s comments in Apsen, the United States undoubtedly hopes that renewed pressure will kill this new deal, but it seems the American government’s opinion is less likely to change the Turkish position now than it did two years ago.

    In November 2015, Turkish F-16 fighter jets had just shot down a Russian Su-24 attack plane over Syria it looked like the two countries might end up in larger skirmish. Russia was adamantly opposed to Turkey’s support for Turkmen rebels fighting the regime of Syrian dictator Bashar Al Assad. Then in July 2016, the situation got stood on its head.

    Members of the Turkish military, including fighter pilots who reportedly tried to kill President Erdoğan as he flew to safety in a VIP jet, attempted to overthrow the government on the night of July 15-16, 2016. Erdoğan and his supporters quickly blamed the coup attempt on self-exiled preacher and one-time ally of the AKP Fethullah Gülen. The Turkish government swiftly set about purging tens of thousands of suspected "Gülenists" from the military, other parts of the government, and state-run universities. In addition, Turkish authorities demanded the United States turn over Gülen, who is still living in Pennsylvania and remains an outspoken critic of what many see as an increasingly dictatorial regime.

    U.S. officials say they would be happy to consider the formal extradition request, but that their Turkish counterparts have yet to provide conclusive evidence of Gülen involvement in the coup plot. The result has been a significant chill in U.S.-Turkey relations. Notably, in June 2017, U.S. authorities said they would charge members of Erdoğan security detail over what appeared to be a series of unprovoked attacks on individuals protesting the Turkish president outside the country's Embassy in Washington, D.C. the month before.

    On top of that, as The War Zone has already reported in detail, Turkey’s concerns about ascendant Kurdish groups, which is sees as indistinguishable for domestic Kurdish terrorists, has only pushed it further away from the United States and closer to Russia. The U.S. military has gone so far as to deploy special operations forces to keep to peace between Turkish forces and their partners and Kurdish groups, which American officials see as an essential part of the fight against ISIS terrorists.


    In turn, the government in Ankara teamed up with its Russian and Iranian counterparts to devise a ceasefire and safe zone plan. The Kremlin revealed the basic parameters of the plan in May 2017 and the final arrangement remains elusive. Earlier in July 2017, American and Russian officials claimed they were working on their own deal to halt at least some of the fighting in Syria, which appeared to incorporate many elements of the earlier Russian-Iranian-Turkish concept. So far, it remains unclear what, if any parts of these plans have gone into effect.

    With the situation still so fluid, and reports of increasing fighting between Turkmen and Kurdish rebel groups, Turkey only continues to be disinclined to drop its demands for the Americans to largely cut off military aid to the Syrian Kurds. Erdoğan could potentially use the S-400 deal as diplomatic leverage, but authorities in Washington seem similar dead set in aiding Kurdish forces in Syria, who have so far proven to be the most capable and reliable in taking on ISIS.

    “We have already made clear that we will be in cooperation with countries and companies that would lend support to us throughout this process," Turkish Undersecretary of Defense Industries Ismail Demir had already stressed to reporters back in 2016. "We have said our doors are open and that we are willing to cooperate.”

    Given the country's seemingly intractable differences with the United States over the Kurds, as well as the Turkish military’s clear need for its own long-range air defenses and the country’s desire to expand its self-sufficient defense industry, it seems likely Turkey will proceed with its plans to buy S-400 systems absent any more attractive offer.

    Contact the author: jtrevithickpr@gmail.com
    Last edited by Bayar; 25th July 2017 at 22:20.

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