^^ Make up your mind Jo
Regardless of whether they are related to Pak-fa or not they are good reads, so keep up the good work
The above supposition is wrong because the fan blade is not composed of the compound Magnesium-boride (MgB), but the 2 individual elements of Magnesium, Boron combined with Carbon-fibre composite. Apologies, misled by technical paper(s) stating "Mg-B".
These three constituents are used to form what's known as a Metal Matrix Composite (MMC)/Металлические матрицы (Металлокомпозиты).
Создание современных газотурбинных двигателей (ГТД) характеризуется заменой в ряде деталей традиционных конструкционных материалов (сталей и титановых сплавов) на современные композиционные материалы (КМ), имеющие более высокие удельные прочность и жесткость.
Такие работы проводят все ведущие двигателестроительные фирмы мира
(General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, CFM International и др.). Исследованиями в этой области в нашей стране занимаются ФГУП ЦИАМ, ФГУП ВИАМ**, ОАО «НПП «Мотор», ОАО «Пермский моторный завод» и др.
В настоящее время одним из основных направлений по применению КМ в газотурбинных двигателях является создание лопатки из углепластика, лопатки из титанового сплава, армированного волокнами карбида кремния, лопатки составной конструкции и лопатки из КМ на металлической матрице.
Creation of modern gas turbine engines (GTE) are characterized by the replacement of some parts of traditional structural materials (steels and titanium alloys) with modern composite materials (CM) with a higher specific strength and stiffness
Such work is undertaken by the leading engine manufacturers of the World (General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, CFM International, etc.). Research in this area in our country is undertaken by 'FGUP TsIAM', 'FGUP VIAM'**, OAO 'NPP Motor', OAO 'Perm Engine Plant' and others.
Currently, one of the main activities on the application of composite materials in turbine engines blades is a establishment of fan blades from CFRP*, fan blades from titanium alloys, reinforced silicon carbide composite blades*, and fan blades composed of composite materials on a metal matrix*.Although 'Metal-Matrix Composites' are not new, the use of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcements is:В перспективных двигателях пятого и шестого поколений на первых ступенях применяются лопатки из металлокомпозитов, где в матрице из алюминиевого или магниевого сплава располагаются армирующие нити из бора или углерода.
В ОАО «НПП «Мотор» создана рабочая лопатка первой ступени компрессора ГТД на основе магниевой матрицы, армированной борными и углеродными волокнами.
In the first [compressor] stages of the future 5th & 6th generation engines 'metal-composites' shall be employed in the fan blades, whereby the matrix made of aluminium or magnesium alloy are reinforced with yarns of boron or carbon.
OAO "NPP" Motor " have established a working fan-blade of the [engine] compressor's first stage based on a magnesium matrix, reinforced with boron and carbon fibre composite.
Boron & carbon fibres can be used as reinforcing materials in the 'traditional' sense, by embedding and aligning the fibres in the matrix in a particular direction to produce an anisotropic structure. However, I'm pretty certain CNTs will be used to reinforce the carbon fibre in 'NPP Motor's' Mg-B based MMC fan blade.***Widespread use of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is perhaps 15 to 20 years away, with research only now beginning for commercial aviation applications. Gear says these materials, which will use carbon or metal nanotubes to strengthen metal matrices, will be twice the strength of comparable existing metal structures but only two-thirds the weight.
CNTs are already used in MMCs:
The use of tailor made carbon nanotubes (CNTs) would facilitate not only significantly greater structural reinforcement/thermal stability etc, but efficient broadband (microwave) radar absorption***. As it has been shown that several Russian companies and academic institutions (including aerospace concerns) have demonstrated this technology and it's synthesis/production for several years***, there is no reason to assume they didn't implement it, and every reason to suggest they did:
FGUP TsIAM's (ФГУП ЦИАМ) 2nd patent (2009)for a different CNT synthesis & production method, pertaining to produce MWNTs and other nanostructured carbon fibre composites as a "raw material" in a single process, on an industrial scale for use in "hybrid, high-temperature composite materials for the aviation industry and missile production":
http://www.findpatent.ru/patent/237/2379387.html (TsIAM's 1st patent, 2008);
http://www.itae.ru/obsh_sved_e.htm (ITAE state contract U0875/2268);
In conclusion, I would expect significant use of CNTs not only for the engine (compressor blades, turbines, engine shroud etc.) but importantly, also the T-50's air intakes' cavity and duct- which is made from CFRP:
*All these are candidates for CNT composites;
**'FGUP VIAM' (ФГУП ВИАМ) are long established and serious players in composites and nanotech applications including stealth (e.g. the RAM for the Tu-160's intakes), and are also PAK-FA stage 2 engine contractors:
***see pages 3 & 4.
^^ Make up your mind Jo
Regardless of whether they are related to Pak-fa or not they are good reads, so keep up the good work
T-50-1 has flown, today i presume.
Though, in this particular case mack8 is right, all that differential deflection is used for aerodynamic breaking, but if the plane was high in the air, position of the rudders and elevators should be differential in relation to each other if you want strait line breaking. This way plane is going to pitch up and brake at the same time.
One more thing regarding mack8 aerodynamic controls definition. PAK FA`s ailerons could also be used as flaps and flaps could also be used as ailerons so more appropriate definition should be flaperons for both.
Sounds logical i guess. Thx for the input Peregrinefalcon.
The reason i thought it was rotating was due to the elevators positions and no smoke from the tires, as often seen upon landing.
But this could imply it did rotate, but no take-off. IMO high speed taxing trials.
Upon rotating, shouldn't did LERX/LEVCONS be slightly in upward position?
WOW!! That pic ROCKS!!
Now the question begs.. what have they done with the 51 in all these months?
Here is the pretty awesome CV of OAO 'NPP Motor':
So clearly these guys are LP compressor specialists and (in co-operation with UGATU) have probably some of the most up-to-date CAD/CAM, materials science, rapid prototyping facilities etc. anywhere in Rossiya.ОАО NPP “Motor”
It is one of the leading Russian companies which designs and manufactures high-performance gas turbine engines for military aircraft and gas turbine power sets for power systems. It was established as the experimental design bureau No. 26 (OKB) of the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR by the Order of Minister of Aviation Industry as of September 26, 1955. This date is considered the birthday of the company.
Over the last years, they created the team of designers in NPP "Motor" who know advanced technologies of production and development of aircraft engines. Industrial and laboratory testing facilities are well developed.
OKB specialists constructed about 50 aircraft engines and their modifications for different models of such airplanes as MiG, Yak, Su and unmanned aircraft. Twenty-four of them were produced commercially in OAO “UMPO”. Among them there is a family of highly reliable engines R13-300, R13F-300 and R25-300 for MiG-21 and Su-15, R95SH and R195 for attack aircrafts Su-25 and Su-39.
NPP "Motor" designs gas turbine propulsion engines KR17-300, KR21-300 and KR23 for cruise missiles of maritime purposes such as "Vulcan," "Granite" and "Meteorite" produced by VPK “NPO Mashinostroyenia”.
They constructed a low-pressure compressor together with the main developer of engine RD33 (OAO Klimov") for fighter plane MiG-29. They also developed a low pressure compressor, low pressure turbine, and aircraft accessory gear box for engines of the 5th generation together with OAO “Lyulka-Saturn”. *
In cooperation with OAO “Lyulka-Saturn”, OAO “UMPO”, MKB "Granite" and FGUP MMPP “Salyut”, they performed development works on final design and preparation for mass production of AL-31F engine for heavy fighter Su-27. NPP "Motor" is the only Russian developer of multifunctional flat output devices with control thrust vector, allowing the plane to get a unique flight and combat performance via realization of potential energy capabilities of the engine. The effectiveness of such devices designed by NPP “Motor” is confirmed by flight tests of the prototype on a flying laboratory of Su-27LL.**...
NPP "Motor" is an active participant in development of new aircraft engines. As part of cooperation with OAO UMPO and OAO “NPO Saturn”, the enterprise participates in development works to produce engines 117 and 117S for Su-35 & PAK FA. They also designed a low-pressure compressor of the engine AL-55I for the plane HJT-36 of Indian Air Force.
In cooperation with the enterprises of “Obyedinennaya Dvigatelestroitelnaya Korporatsiya” (ODK), NPP "Motor" is engaged in creating a family of future-oriented engines with the thrust of 9-18 tons for civil aircraft and the new generation engine for PAK-FA of Phase II.
NPP "Motor" participates in formation of technological advance with application of key technologies in the following areas: development of a composite inlet guide vane and primary wheel of a low pressure compressor with a lightweight (hollow) rotor blade on the basis of diffusion welding and linear friction welding ***; development of one-stage low-pressure turbine with high gas-dynamic efficiency and power-weight ratio; development of a high-performance high-pressure compressor; development of a high-performance afterburner; development of a high-performance low-pressure turbine with rotor blades made of intermetallic titanium...
http://technopark-at.ufa-rb.ru/index...d=34&Itemid=27 (full version in ingwish)
I guess the odds have shortened considerably on their Mg-B/CFRP MMC fan blade being the one for the PAK-FA stage 2 engine, or can it be that a 6 year R&D effort is merely to keep idle brains and hands busy, or just for laughs.
* the original AL-41F;
** 2-D TVC;
UMPO tools up for 'BLISK' production (Linear Friction Welding) for 5G engines, with partners……? Yip, you guessed it! 'NPP Motor' & UGATU.
Awesome pic. Welcome back '51', С возвращением!
Produced the first AESA radars for the PAK FA
Scientific Research Institute of Instrument name V.V.Tihomirova developed and manufactured the first four sample radar with an active phased array (AESA), which in the course of flight tests on the fifth-generation fighter fully confirms the specs, the general director of the Institute Yuri White.
"Today has made four full sample AFAR. One is on the permanent bench chief designer at the Tikhomirov NIIP, the second - on the stand of "dry", the third - in the third flight model promising aviation complex tactical aircraft (PAK FA), and has begun flight testing "- said on Yu.Bely held in the Berlin Air Show "ILA 2012".
According to him, in the first flight almost all the claimed features of the new radar AFAR were confirmed: and in the "air-to-air" and in the "air-surface". Yu.Bely reported that the fourth sample AESA radar delivered at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association. "He is now set on the fourth plane that should relocate to Gromov Flight Research Institute and connect to flight tests.
So the program goes on. In fact, according to the schedule agreed with the "dry" - a spokesman said.
He noted that there is, of course, and some problems, but they all relate to the component base. "While it is still buggy, reliable wants to be better. Therefore, our labor input because of this very greatly increased ", - said A. White.
However, according to him, the recent progress has been made. "Progress is noticeable. AFAR price decreased by two and a half times, increased reliability. We believe that future models will come with less straining and more stable performance. To launch into production PAK-FA radar with an active phased array will be fully worked out, "- said Yu.Bely.
He said, the consequences on the basis created for the fifth generation fighter AESA radar with plans to develop several new modifications that will be applied to the other combat aircraft.
"Just as the passive phased array AESA line will develop. Masshabirovanie will, there will be new versions ", - said A. White.
As an example, he cited the locator "Irbis", which is installed on multi-purpose fighter Su-35. "Today, he is in demand for ground-based, we apply it to the instrumental part of FAR. Has now been decided to install the radar for long-range Tu-22M3 strategic bombers and Tu-160 and its modernization, "- said Yu.Bely.
According to him, the most important factor that will soon deter the use of AESA - is worth, because this radar is several times more expensive than the locators with slotted and passive bars. "Opportunities have AESA radar, of course, is much higher, but we have somehow accepted that it is necessary to make the new model was cheaper than the previous one, and the characteristics it should be much better. But it does not happen "- said Yu.Bely.
Previously reported that the Institute developed the radar instrument named V.V.Tihomirova AFAR can increase detection range, parallel work in the "air-to-air" and "air-to-surface" to recognize and classify group and single objects simultaneously attack several targets high-precision weapons, and to provide communication and electronic countermeasures.
According to the correspondent of the newspaper "The Military-Industrial Courier," news agencies ARMS-TASS and Interfax-AVN
Is it the silence of T 50-4? Yes as all time we did i want to ask for will it have one piece canopy or radar blocker? Can't wait for the weapons trials starts at PAK-FA program...
Last edited by medal64; 21st September 2012 at 09:58.
it was said already that 50-4 will fly nearest two months
and don't expect many stunning photos from weapon tests...
so far meet T-50 HMDS
Thanks flateric, its already enough to see the weapon bays opened
Last edited by medal64; 22nd September 2012 at 08:17.
Ah, so they are going HMDS route afterall. The wide screen ShKS-5 HUD looks so cool tho.
FYI they are (slightly) opened here:
Not sure why, could be a general actuator test. At any rate, that's the 51 and this would imply that they, like the S-37/Su-47, have fully functional bays (sans launchers/racks) and that they had them even from the very beginning (unlike the MiG 1.44, where the doors were bolted shut).
Last edited by Dr.Snufflebug; 22nd September 2012 at 20:47.
A Russian firm called 'NanoTech Centre' ("НаноTехЦентр"), has started commercial production of polycrystalline graphite with multi-walled nano tube (MWNT) structures. It's called UNM "Tainit" (УНМ "Таунит") and is in the form of a raw material- granulated, loose black powder.
UNM "Taunit" was officially certified for commercial production on 08/12/11.Радиопоглощающие покрытия на основе УНМ «Таунит»
В сотрудничестве с Обнинским государственным техническим университетом ядерной физики исследовались радиопоглащающие покрытия (РПП) с добавлением УНМ "Таунит". Доказано, что небольшое (несколько десятых мм) увеличение слоя матрицы с УНМ снижает коэффициент отражения в несколько раз, повышается стойкость к воздействию температур, влажности и др. внешних факторов. К тому же толщина РПП на порядок меньше толщины радиопоглащающей резины и др. применяемых на сегодняшний день покрытий (0.3 мм против 20-50 мм). Поэтому область применения РПП на основе УНМ может быть достаточно широкой.
Физико-техническим институтом им. А.Ф. Иоффе проводились исследования по поглощению СВЧ-излучения пленками УНМ "Таунит" в полимерной матрице. Установлено, что слой толщиной 1 мм может в 400-450 раз ослабить интенсивность СВЧ-излучения, при этом коэффициент отражения бизок к 0.
Radar absorbent coatings based on UNM "Taunit"
In collaboration with the Obninsk State Technical University for nuclear physics, investigated the radar absorption covering (RPP) with the addition of UNM "Taunit". It was proven that a small layer of the matrix (a few tenths of a millimetre) of UNM reduces the reflection coefficient by several times, increased resistance to temperature, humidity and other external factors. Moreover, the thickness of the RPP is much less than the thickness of [other] radar absorbent resins etc. used to date (0.3 mm as opposed to 20-50 mm). Therefore, the [utilisation] scope of RPP based on UNM can be quite broad.
The Institute of Physics & Technology named after A.F. Ioffe undertook research on the absorption of microwave radiation by a film of UNM "Taunit" in a polymer matrix. They discovered that the layer with a thickness of 1 mm reduced the intensity of the microwave radiation by 400-450 times, the reflection coefficient (bizok/бизок?*) to 0.**
Also, it is confirmed that OAO 'Perm Engine Plant' (ОАО «Пермский моторный завод») has developed a CFRP matrix 'modified' with MWNTs. FGUP TsIAM's (ФГУП ЦИАМ) significant developments in this field for engine applications have already been detailed above, they've even mastered CNT dispersion & alignment. These two companies are also engaged in next gen. compressor development.
Hence, I see no technical reason for 'NPP Motor's' Mg-B metal matrix composite (MMC) fan blade not to be reinforced/modified with MWNTs. By all accounts, they're way ahead of the game.
*not familiar with this term, maybe one of our resident native Russians could elaborate. Thanks.
** these stats may be 'advertising speak', but even if the numbers were only half as good- they'd still be mighty impressive!
@ Dr. Snufflebug, I think it's KNS. Do you have any pics of the 1.44's w/bays? I've never seen them. Thanks.
Berkut says of 50-KNS
I see, so it's the KNS. So I guess KnAAPO just mix KNS and 50-1 up there, or what? At any rate, the bay doors are partially open in that picture whatever the reason might be.
Nobody outside of Mikoyan has as far as I know. Can't find the source at the moment but I am positive that I read about the main bay being covered by a static panel, bolted shut to the airframe. They never proceeded with fitting it with the intended doors, even though the bay itself was in fact there.Originally Posted by Jō Asakura
The S-37 had a functional bay though, though never fitted with any sort of missile racks or similar.
1.42 longitudinal cross-section though shows that there was a plenty of volume for WB. Hope one day we will know for sure.
That's just a misunderstanding because of the angle/light . It's T-50-1 in that picture. Tailbooms are the same on all T-50s ( except the mod from last year on 51 for a spin chute , of course)
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